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29 Cards in this Set

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Socialization
Process whereby a helpless infant gradually becomes self aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture into which he or she was born
Social Reproduction
The process whereby societies have structural continuity over time. Ex: Children learn from their elders. W/o example: "Wild boy of Aveyron" and "Genie"
Cognition
Piaget: The ways in which children learn to think about themselves and their environment.
Social self:
Mead: Me opposed to I. Me is the spontananeous want of an infant, while me is awareness of oneself and not just one's desires
Self consciousness
Mead: Seeing themselves as others see them.
Generalized other
Mead:The general values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing. (Ages 8-9)
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget: (ages 0-2) Infants learn mainly by touching objects, manipulating them and physically exploring their environment.
Preoperational Stage
Piaget: Ages 2-7. Mastery of language and become able to use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion.
Egocentric
Paiget: (ages 2-7) Tendency of the child to interpret the world exclusively in terms of his own position.
Concrete operational stage
Piaget (Ages 7-11): Children master abstract, logical notions.
Formal operational stage:
Paiget (ages 11-15) Grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas.
Agents of socialization
Groups or social contexts in which significant processes of socialization occur. ex: family, schools, peer relationships, mass media, and work
Peer group
Consist of children of a similar age.
Age-grades
Peer groups formalizes age grades. Specific ceremonies or rites that mark the transition of men from on grade-age to another. (mainly male.)
Mass Media:
Printed documents that were later accompanied by electronic communication: radio, television, records and videos.
Social Roles
Socially defined expectations that a person in a given social position follows.
Identity
the understandings people hold about who they are and what is meaningful to them.
Social Identity
Characteristics that other people attribute to an individual. Markers that indicate who that individual is. People are often placed in relation to other individual who share the same attributes.
Self Identity
Sets us apart as distinct individuals
Gender Socialization
The learning of gender roles through social factors such as the family and the media.
Freud: Gender Roles
The learning of gender differences in infants and young children is centered on the possession or absence of a penis. Symbolic of masculine and feminine.
Chodorow: Gender Roles
Learning to feel male or female derives from infant's attachment to parents at an early age. More emphasis on the mother. Girls to not experience a sharp break from mother which portrays female dependence. While boys gain a sense of self through radical rejection of their closeness to their mother.
Gilligan: Gender Roles
Images adult women and men have of themselves and their attainments. Women define themselves in terms of personal relationships and judge their achievements by reference to the ability to care for others. Men see their own emphasis on individual achievement.
Life Course:
Social and biological in nature. Influences by cultural differences and also by the material circumstances of people's lives in given types of society.
Childhood life course:
The long period of childhood that we recognize today shows society's child centered culture that is separate from traditional roles, where childhood was much shorter, and children began working at a young age.
Teenager life course
Other cultures there is no teenager stage. Childhood-->adulthood. Western societies teenagers try to follow adult ways but are treated in law as children.
Young adult life course
Specific stage in personal and sexual development in modern societies.
Mature adulthood life course
"Make" own life rather then planned by others.Greater freedom. Midlife crisis: unsatisfying jobs, and grownup children.
Old Age Life course:
Not as respected in modern times as traditional society. Now poorer in old age, no longer living with family, retired, and difficult to makes the final period of life rewarding.