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80 Cards in this Set

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PSYCHOLOGY
SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF BEHAVIOR
6 THEMES OF PSYCHOLOGY
1.IT DEPENDS
2.RESEARCH PROGRESS DEPENDS ON GOOD MEASUREMENT
3.CORRELATION DOES NOT INDICATE CAUSATION
4.VARIATIONS AMONG IND REFLECT HEREDITY/ENVIRONMENT
5.BEST BEHAVIOR OF FUTURE BEHAVIOR IS PAST BEHAVIOR IN SIMILAR SITUATIONS
6.SOME STATEMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY REFLECT STROGER EVIDENCE THAN OTHERS
MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES
1. FREE WILL VS. DETERMINISM
2. MIND-BRAIN PROBLEM
3. NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE
DUALISM
ONE VIEW OF MIND-BRAIN ISSUE THAT STATES THAT THE MIND IS SEPERATE FROM THE BRAIN BUT SOMEHOW CONTROLS THE BRAIN & BODY
MONISM
OTHER MORE WIDELY RESPECTED VIEW IN MIND-BRAIN ISSUE THAT STATES THAT THE CONSCIOUS EXP IS INSEPERABLE FROM PHYSICAL BRAIN
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
STUDIES HOW BEHAVIOR CHANGES W/AGE
LEARNING & MOTIVATION
STUDIES HOW BEHAVIOR DEPENDS ON OUTCOMES OF PAST BEHAVIORS & CURRENT MOTIVATIONS
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
PHD W/ CLINICAL EMPHASIS OR PSYD PLUS INTERNSHIP
PSYCHIATRISTS
MD PLUS PSYCH RESIDENCY; CAN PRESCRIBE MEDS
WILHEM WUNDT
-SET UP 1ST PSYCHOLOGY LAB IN GERMANY 1879
-STUDIED COMPONENTS OF MIND: ELEMENTS/COMPOUNDS
EDWARD TITCHENER
INVENTED STRUCTURALISM
STRUCTURALISM
ATTEMPT TO DESC STRUCTURES THAT COMPOSE THE MIND
WILLIAM JAMES
-FOUNDER OF AMERICAN PSYCH
-FOCUSED ON WHAT MIND DOES RATHER THAN WHAT IT IS
-INVENTED FUNCTIONALISM
FUNCTIONALISM
HOW PEOPLE PRODUCE USEFUL BEHAVIORS
FRANCIS GALTON
ONE OF THE FIRST TO MEASURE INTELL & ASK WHETHER INTELLECT WAS BASED ON HEREDITY BY USING SIMPLE SENSORY/MOTOR TASKS
ALFRED BINET
FRENCH RESEARCHER THAT DEVISED 1ST USEFUL INTELL TEST
JOHN B WATSON
FOUNDER OF BEHAVIORISM
BEHAVIORISM
CONCENTRATES ON OBSERVABLE, MEASURABLE BEHAVIORS AND NOT MENTAL PROCESSES
RECENT TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGY
-COGNITIVE PSYCH
-NEUROSCIENCE
-WOMEN IN PSYCH
-MINORITIES IN PSYCH
-HEALTH PSYCH
-SPORTS PSYCH
DEDUCTION
PROCESS OF DERIVING A CONCLUSION FR PROCESSES ALREADY ACCEPTED
INDUCTION
PROCESS OF INFERRING A GEN PRINC FR OBSERVATIONS
FALSIFIABLE
THEORY STATES IN PRECISE TERMS SO THAT WE CAN SEE WHAT EVIDENCE WOULD COUNT AGAINST IT
METANALYSIS
COMBINES RESULTS OF MANY STUDIES AND ANALYZES THEM AS THOUGH THEY WERE ALL ONE STUDY
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
DEFINITION THAT SPECIFIES OPS USED TO PRODUCE OR MEASURE SOMETHING
CONVENIENCE SAMPLE
ANYONE WHO IS AVAIL
-EASIEST TO GET
-RESULTS MAY NOT GENERALIZE WHOLE POP
REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
SAME % AS WHOLE POP
-RESULTS PROB SIMILAR TO WHOLE POP
RANDOM SAMPLE
EVERYONE HAS CHANCE OF BEING CHOSEN
-DIFFICULT TO GET
-BEST SUITED FOR GENERALIZING WHOLE POP
CROSS CULTURAL SAMPLE
PEOPLE FR DIFF CULTURES
-LANG BARRIERS, COOP PROBLEMS
-ESSENTIAL FOR STUDYING MANY ISSUES
SINGLE BLIND
EXPERIMENTER:AWARE
OBSERVER/PARTIC: ONE IS UNAWARE
DOUBLE BLIND
EXPERIMENTER: AWARE
OBSERVER/PARTIC: BOTH UNAWARE
DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS
DEFINED BY MARTIN ORNE
CUES THAT TELL PARTIC WHAT IS EXPECTED OF HIM/HER AND WHAT THE EXPERIMENTER HOPES TO FIND
+1
ONE VARIABLE INCREASES-OTHER INCREASES
-1
ONE VARIABLE INCREASES-OTHER DECREASES
CORRELATION 0
NO LINEAR RELATIONSHIP
CORRELATION NEAR 0
2 VARIABLES ARE UNRELATED OR MAY BE POORLY MEASURED
ILLUSORY CORRELATION
APPARENT RELATIONSHIP BASED ON CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF UNRELATED OR WEAKLY RELATED EVENTS
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
ITEM THAT AN EXPERIMENTER CHANGES OR CONTROLS
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
ITEM MEASURED TO DETERMINE HOW IT WAS AFFECTED
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
RCVS TREATMENT THAT EXP IS DESIGNED TO TEST
CONTROL GROUP
SET OF INDIVIDUALS TREATED SAME WAY AS EXP GROUP EXCEPT FOR PROCEDURE THAT EXP IS DESIGNED TO TEST
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMANS
-MUST OBTAIN INFORMED CONSENT FOR ADULTS
-SPECIAL CASES INVOLVE PEOPLE WHO DO NOT UNDERSTAND INFORMED CONSENT
-COLLEGE EXP MUST BE APPROVED BY IRB JUDGES
-DECEPTIONS MUST BE REVIEWED BY JUDGES
-MANUAL PUBLISHED BY APA THAT DETAILS PROPER ETHICAL TREATMENT DURING EXP
ETHICAL CONCERNS NONHUMANS
-EASIER TO CONTROL ASPECTS OF NONHUMAN LIFE
-ABLE TO STUDY BEHAVIOR OVER LONGER PERIODS OF TIMES
-RESEARCH MAY POSE HEALTH RISKS
-COMMITTEES MAINTAINED TO ENSURE ANIMALS TREATED HUMANELY
-PAIN/DISCOMFORT KEPT TO MIN
-EXPERIMENTERS CONSIDER ALT BEFORE TRYING PAINFUL PROCEDURES
MEAN
SUM/TOTAL # OF SCORES
MEDIAN
MIDDLE #
MODE
# APPEARS MOST
RANGE
STATEMENT OF HIGHEST/LOWEST SCORES
STANDARD DEVIATION
MEASUREMENT OF AMT OF VARIATION AMONG SCORES
95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
RANGE WITHIN WHICH TRUE POP MEAN LIES W/ 95% CERTAINTY
PET
RECORDS RADIOACTIVIT OF VARIOUS BRAIN AREAS EMITTED FR INJECTED CHEMICALS
EEG
USES ELECTRODES TO RECORD RAPID CHANGES IN BRAIN ELECTRIC ACTIV
-PROVIDE LITTLE PRECISION AB LOCATION OF ACTIV
FMRI
USES MAGNETIC DETECTORS OUTSIDE THE HEAD TO COMPARE AMTS OF HEGLOBIN W/ OR W/OUT O2 IN DIFF BRAIN AREAS
OCCIPITAL LOBE
VISION
DAMAGE: 0 CONSCIOUS VISION, NO OBJECT RECOGNITION, NO VISUAL IMAGERY
TEMPORAL LOBE
HEARING & COMPLEX ASPECTS OF VISION
DAMAGE: NO LONGER RECOGNIZE FACES, MOTION BLIND, IMPAIRMENT RECOGNIZING SEQUENCES OF SOUNDS
DAMAGE TEMPORAL LOBE L HEMISPHERE
TROUBLE UNDERSTANDING SPEECH AND REMEMBERING NAMES OF OBJECTS
-MAY MAKE UP SPEECH
AMYGDALA
SUBCORTICAL STRUC WITHIN TEMPORAL LOBE THAT RESPONDS STRONGLY TO EMOTIONAL SITUATIONS
DAMAGE: SLOW PROCESS EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF INFO
PARIETAL LOBE
SPECIALIZED FOR BODY SENSES: TOUCH, PAIN, TEMP, AWARENESS OF LOCATION OF BODY PARTS
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
STRIP IN ANT PORTION OF PARIETAL LOBE HAS CELLS SENSITIVE TO TOUCH IN DIFF BODY AREAS
DAMAGE: IMPAIRS SENSATIONS FR CORRESPONDING PART OF BODY
PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
PLANNED CONTROL OF FINE MOVEMENTS
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
CERTAIN ASPECTS OF MEMORY AND ORGANIZATION/PLANNING OF MOVEMENTS
MEDULLA
CONTROL MUSCLES OF HEAD
CEREBELLUM
PART OF HINDBRAIN, BEHAVIOR THAT REQ AIM/TIMING
DAMAGE:RESEMBLES INTOXICATION, SLURRED SPEECH, STAGGERING, INACCURATE EYE MOVEMENTS
CORPUS CALLOSUM
SET OF AXONS THAT CONNECT THE L/R HEMISPHERES OF THE CERBRAL CORTEX
BINDING PROBLEM
QUESTION OF HOW SEPERATE BRAIN AREAS COMBINE FORCES TO PRODUCE A UNIFIED PERCEPTION OF A SINGLE OBJECT
GLIA
SUPPOR NEURONS IN MANY WAYS BY INSULATING THEM, SYNCHRONIZING ACTIVITY AMONG NEIGHBORING NEURONS, REMOVING WASTES
TERMINAL BUTTON
PRESYNAPTIC ENDING
POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON
NEURON ON RCVG END OF SYNAPSE
PLASTICITY
THE ABILITY OF THE BRAIN TO CHANGE W/EXP
STIMULANTS
AFFECTS REUPTAKE/RELEASE OF DOPAMINE
DEPRESSANT
FACILITATES EFFECTS OF GABA, INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTER
RECEPTORS
SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT CONVERT ENV ENERGIES INTO SIGNALS FOR THE NERVOUS SYS
PUPIL
ADJUSTABLE OPENING IN EYE WHERE LIGHT ENTERS
FOVEA
CENTRAL AREA OF HUMAN REITNA ADAPTED FOR HIGHLY DETAILED VISION
-GREATEST DENSITY OF RECEPTORS
PRESBYOPIA
IMPAIRED ABILITY TO FOCUS ON NEARBY OBJECTS B/C OF DECREASED FLEX OF LENS
MYOPIA
NEARSIGHTED
HYPEROPIA
FARSIGHTED
TRICHROMATIC THEORY
RECEPTORS RESPOND TO 3 TYPES OF COLORS
OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY
COLOR PERCEIVED NOT IN TERMS OF INDEPENDENT COLORS BUT IN TERMS OF PAIRED OPPOSITES: RED V GREEN, YELLOW V BLUE, WHITE V BLACK
RETINEX THEORY
COLOR PERCEIVED THROUGH CERBRAL CORTEX'S COMPARISON OF VARIOUS RETINAL PATTERNS
FREQUENCY
# OF CYCLES THAT SOUND GOES THROUGH PER SECOND (hZ)
CONDUCTION DEAFNESS
BEONES CONNECTED TO EARDRUM FAIL TO TRANSMIT SOUND WAVES PROPERLY TO COCHLEA