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20 Cards in this Set

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Difference between catabolism and anabolism?
Catabolism: ADP-->ATP; conversion of energy to a useful form

Anabolism: ATP-->ADP; require energy; builds up molecules and proteins; useful energy + small molecules-->complex molecules
Why can't glucose-6 phosphate form ATP?
What could form ATP?
How (generally) would the cell accomplish this?
Glucose 6-P couldn't donate a phosphate to ADP because its hydrolysis is less than 50kJ/mol.

Creatine-P; cell couples dephosphorylation of CP with phosphorylation of ADP.
What is the empirical formula of carbohydrates?
CH2O
What functional groups are present in all carbons in carbohydrates?
Hydroxyl groups, except for one, which is a carbonyl group.
What are the two classes of carbohydrates? How do they differ structurally?
Ketose & Aldose
Aldose: Carbonyl at aldehyde (terminal) position

Ketose: carbonyl at ketose (internal) position
How is D/L stereochemistry determined in carbohydrates? Which occurs most frequently?
Stereochemistry of carbon furthest from carbonyl.
If goes R, OH, CH2OH, H (clockwise from noon), then it's D.

Always D.
Identify molecules 1-13
Nice try.
What are anomers? How are they classified?
When two ring structures differ by position of OH in respect to ring.

alpha: below plane of ring
beta: above plane of ring
Difference between furan and pyran?
Furan: 5 member ring
Pyran: 6 member ring
Which fructofuranose anomer is favored biologically?
alpha
Briefly describe the reactions that make up the three stages of TCA.
Stage I:
Fats-->FAs, glycerol; Polysaccharides-->Glucose; sugars; Proteins-->Amino acids

Stage II:
-->AcetylCoA + NADH + ATP (some)

Stage III:
AcetylCoA enters TCA-->CoA; 2CO2; 8e-

NAD+, FAD-->NADH, FADH2

Electrons enter OxPhos + O2-->ATP + H2O
What is the role of CoA?
What its reactive group?
Carries acyl groups
SH
What chemical property allows Acetyl CoA to perform its job?
Hydrolysis of bond between Sulfur and acyl group has negative free energy.
Why is NAD+ especially good at attracting electrons?
Its positively charged.
Write out the reduction reactions of NAD+ and FAD in TCA. Who is the ultimate recipient of these electrons?
NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- <--> NADH

FAD + 2H+ + 2e- <--> FADH2

Oxygen
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Describe its steps.
Mitochondria.

Oxidation of fuels (NADH oxidized to give Oxygen electrons) pump protons out of mito and create proton gradient. The influx of protons then are used to drive ATP synthesis: ADP + Pi-->ATP.
Name and describe the 6 types of chemical reactions in metabolism?
Ox-Red: electron transfer

Ligation req. ATP cleavage: forms covalent (Carbon) bonds

Isomerization: rearrangement of atoms to form isomers

Group transfer: transfer of fnal grop between molecs

Hydrolytic: Cleavage of bonds by addition of H2O

Addition/Elimination: addition of fnal groups to double bonds or their removal to form double bonds
Identify reactions 1-6.
Good luck :)
What is high energy charge indicative of? Low energy charge?
High ATP; High AMP
How does ATP utilization/generation vary as a function of energy charge?
High energy charge-->High ATP utilization, low ATP generation

Low energy charge-->High ATP generation; low ATP utilization