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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The 2 characteristics necessary to generate electrical currents are?
1. excitability 2. conduction
The ability of muscle cells to respond to a certain stimulus is called?
excitability
Neuron cell processes that carry impulses toward the cell body are termed?
Dendrites
The control center of the cell is the?
nucleus
The inside contents of the cell is called?
cytoplasm
That portion of the cell that contains the nucleus is called?
the cell body
The neuron cell process that carries impulses away from the cell body is the?
axon
The spaces between the myelin sheath are called?
Nodes of Ranvier
The fatty insulating substance formed by Schwann cells and forms a sheath on some neurons cell processes is called?
Myelin sheath
The terminating ends of the axon are called?
axon terminals
The structures found at the distal end of the axon terminals are called?
synaptic end bulbs
Electrolytes are separated by the ___ ___________, which acts as a semi-permeable membrane.
cell membrane
As electrolytes accumulate they form _____________ fields?
electrical
The electrical field outside the cell is _______?
positive
This is primarily due to accumulation of ___________ ions?
sodium
the electrical field inside the cell is?
negative
The membrane at rest is called ___ _________ ________; also known are the polarized state?
resting membrane potential
The voltage at rest is?
-70mV
The ion of depolarization is?
sodium
the ion of repolarziation is?
potassium
Movement of current down an unmyelineated axom is called?
Continuous condution
Movement down a myelinated axon is called?
Saltatory conduction (because it jumps from node to node)
Neurotransmitter moves out of the synaptic end bulb by the process of?
exocytosis
The place where information is transferred from one neuron to another cell is the?
synapse
Which is formed by a neuron and another cell such as a glandular cell, a muscle cell or another?
neuron
Neurotransmitter is a?
chemical message
The functional unit of the nervous system is the?
reflex arc
Reflexes are rapid, predictable and?
automatic
the term that means "staying the same" and is a method to keep physiological changes within ranges is called?
homeostasis
A self-regulating system that reverses a change in a conrolled condition is a?
Negative feedback
The feedback loop uses the components of the reflex arc; the 3 components of the reflex arc are the?
1. receptor
2. integration center
3. effector
Negative feedback as used with the endocrine system is called the?
neuroendocrine response
Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in what way?
the response intensifies and reinforces the stimulus and increase in strength
both eht nervous system and the endocrine system are coordinated by the?
hypothalamus (found in the brain)
Glands the secrete their secretions into ducts are called?
exocrine glands (uses exocytosis to move substances)
Glands that secrete their secretions into interstitial fluid and then absorb by the blood are called the?
endocrine glands (uses exocytosis to move substances)
specific cells where hormones go so they may activate them are called?
target cells/tissue
When a hormone and a receptor combine they form a?
hormone-receptor complex
Thyroid hormone is important to help regulate?
metabolism
The thyroid gland and its hormones are controlled by the?
hypothalamus
Antidiuretic horomone causes water to be ____________ into the blood?
reabsorbed
Aldosterone is responsible for maintaining levels of?
1. Sodium
2. chloride
3. potassium
Parathyroid hormone that causes blood calcium levels to be?
raised
Calcitonin is a hormone that causes blood calcium levels to be?
lowered
The disease that is caused by low insulin levels is called?
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Hypersecrection of the thyroid gland can lead to?
Graves Disease
Hyposecretion of the thyroid gland can lead to ________ in infants.
Cretinism
Hyposecretion of the thyrod gland can lead to _______in adults?
myxedema
Hypersecretion of growth hormone can lead to?
giantism
Hyposecretion of growth hormones can lead to?
dwarfism
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids can lead to?
Cushings syndrome