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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ACINUS
smallest gland
AIRWAY OPENING PRESSURE
mouth pressure
AIRWAY PRESSURE
mouth pressure
ALVEOLAR DISTENDING PRESSURE
pressure difference between inside and outside of lung
ASCITES
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space
AUTO-PEEP
a buildup of positive pressure in the lungs at the end of exhalation
BASELINE PRESSURE
pressure from which inspiration begins and at which expiration ends during mechanical ventilation
BRONCHOPLEURAL FISTAS
a hole or opening between the lung and pleural space producing an air communication between the two
CLOSED LOOP
a feedback control scheme in which the actual output is measured and comparede with the desired input set
COMPLIANCE
the relative ease with which the structure distends
CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE
CPAP, positive pressure applied to the spontaneously breathing patient during both inspiration and expiration
CONTROL SYSTEM
the internal components of a ventilator
CONTROL VARIABLE
the primary variable the ventilator control circuit adjusts to cause inspiration
CONTROLLED VENTILATION
time triggering of all breaths, with breath rate established by the ventilator
CRITICAL OPENING PRESSURE
the pressure required to open a collapsed lung unit
CYCLE VARIABLE
the phase variable that ends inspiration
CYCLING MECHANISM
the variable that ends inspiration
DOUBLE CIRCUIT VENTILATOR
a ventilator in which the primary power source generates a gas flow that compresses another mechanism such as a bag or bellows
DRIVE MECHANISM
the mechanical device that causes gas flow to the patient
ELASTANCE
the tendency of a structure to return to its original form after being stretched
ESOPHAGEL PRESSURE
pressure measured from a balloon placed in the esophagus
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT
see (patient circuit)
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
the movement of of 02 and c02 across the alveolar capillary membrane
EXTRINSIC PEEP
positive end expiratory pressure applied by the operator
FLOW CYCLING
inspiration ends when a specific flow is measured during inspiration
FLOW LIMITED
flow during the ventilation reaches a maximum value before the end of inspiration but does not exceed that value
FLOW TRIGGERING
inspiratory flow from the ventilator begins when a set drop of flow through the patient circuit is detected during exhalation
FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY
the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a normal exhalation
HETEROGENOUS
asexual generation, reproduction that differs from one generation to the next
HIGH FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION
ventilation that uses rates between about 100 to 400 to 600 breaths/min
HIGH FREQUENCY OSCILLATORY VENTILATION
uses rates into the thousands, up to about 4000 cycles/min
HIGH FREQUENCY POSITIVE PRESSURE VENTILATION
a conventional positive pressure set at high repsiratory rates with lower than normal tidal volumes
HOMOGENEOUS
comprising similar parts or elements
INTERNAL PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT
a series of gas conducting tubes on the inside of the ventilator that directs the gas flow within the ventilator to the outside of the ventilator for delivery to the patient
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
the movement of of 02 and c02 between the cells and the blood
INTRINSIC PEEP
a buildup of positive pressure in the lungs at the end of exhalation
LIMIT VARIABLE
the phase variable who size is set at some predetermined maximum that cannot be exceeded during inspiration
MANDATORY BREATHS
breaths for which the ventilator determines the start time(time-triggered) based on the set rate or the volume (volume targeted) or pressure (pressure targeted or both the start time and the tidal volume or pressure delivered
MANDATORY MINUTE VENTILATION
a closed loop system in which the ventilator monitors set parameters and makes adjustments based on those parameters and the patient's spontaneous breathing efforts
MASK PRESSURE
x
MOUTH PRESSURE
pressure at the upper airway
NEGATIVE END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE
negative pressure applied to the airway at the end of exhalation during mechanical ventilation
OPEN LOOP
in which a variable is set and the operating system makes no comparisons between the output and input signals and no changes to the designated variable
PATIENT CIRCUIT
a series of gas conducting tubes that conduct gas from the ventilator output connector to the patient and from the patient to the ventilator exhalation valve, also called the ventilator circuit
PATIENT TRIGGERING
when inspiration begins due to the ventilator sensing a change in pressure, flow, or volume due to a patient effort
PEAK AIRWAY PRESSURE
the highest pressure achieved during inspiration on positive pressure ventilation
PEAK INSPIRATORY PRESSURE
the highest pressure achieved during inspiration on positive pressure ventilation
PEAK PRESSURE
the highest pressure achieved during inspiration on positive pressure ventilation
PHASE VARIABLE
a signal that is measured and used by the ventilator to begin some part (phase) of the breathing cycle
PLATEAU PRESSURE
a condition of no flow exists, reflecting the pressure in the lungs and patient circuit
PLATEAU PRESSURE
a condition of no flow exists, reflecting the pressure in the lungs and patient circuit
POSITIVE END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE
pressure above atmospheric , applied to the airway during exhalation, that increases the functional residual capacity
PRESSURE CONTROL
a mode of ventilation that is normally patient or time triggered, pressure targeted, and time cycled
PRESSURE CYCLING
inspiration ends when the ventilator measures a set pressure during inspiration
PRESSURE GRADIENT
a pressure difference between two points, one pressure being higher than the other
PRESSURE LIMITING
a mode of ventilation in which a set maximum pressure cannot be exceeded
PRESSURE SUPPORT
a mode of ventilation that is normally patient triggered, pressure targeted, and flow cycled
PRESSURE TRIGGERING
when a change in pressure starts gas flow from the ventilator to deliver inspiration
PROXIMAL AIRWAY PRESSURE
x
RESISTANCE
frictional forces associated with ventilation
RESPIRATION
the movement of gas molecules across a membrane
SINGLE CIRCUIT VENTILATOR
a ventilator in which the internal pneumatic circuit allows the gas to go directly from its power source into the patient
SPONTANEOUS BREATHS
a breath or inspiratory gas flow that is started by the patient (patient triggered) and tidal volume delivery is determined by the patient (patient cycled)
STATIC COMPLIANCE/STATIC EFFECTIVE COMPLIANCE
compliance measurement done under conditions of no gas flow. Compliance is equal to a volume change divided by a pressure change
TIME CONSTANT
x
TIME CYCLING
when the ventilator ends inspiration after measuring a specific time that has elapsed during the inspiratory phase
TIME TRIGGERING
the beginning of inspiration initiated by a ventilator when it detects that a certain period of time has elapsed
TRANSAIRWAY PRESSURE
the difference between airway pressure and alveolar pressure
TRANSPULMONARY PRESSURE
the difference between alveolar pressure and pleural pressure
TRANSRESPIRATORY PRESSURE
the difference between airway opening pressure and body surface pressure
TRANSTHORACIC PRESSURE
the difference between alveolar pressure and body surface pressure, also called trans chest wall pressure
TRIGGER VARIABLE
the phase variable that begins inspiration
USER INTERFACE
the dials, knobs, controls, and touch screen devices used by the ventilator operator to determine how the ventilator will function
VENTILATION
the movement of air into and out of the lungs
VOLUME CYCLED
inspiration ends when a preset volume is delivered to the patient
VOLUME LIMITING
a mode of ventilation in which a maximum volume is set and cannot be exceeded
VOLUME TRIGGERING
when the ventilator detects a small drop in volume in the patient circuit during the later part of exhalation and begins inspiration
ZERO END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE
a baseline pressure of zero during expiratory phase of mechanical ventilation