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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
To study CULTURE is to study...
the structures and relations of meaning in any given society and to study the ways these meanings contribute to social function, power, reproduction, or revolution
STATUS SOCIETIES
the organization of society based on social statuses, roles and relationships
CONTRACT SOCIETIES
The organization of society based on free individuals coming into consensal relations of a certain kind for a certain period of time
The three elements of a gift, according to Marcel Mauss are...
1) to give
2) to receive
3) to reciprocate
According to MAUSS, the gift exists as a...
moral-obligatory system and TOTAL SOCIAL FACT
PRESTATION
A gift, payment, or service that forms part of some traditional function in a society given or due either to specific persons or to the group
COUNTER PRESTATION
A gift, payment or service given in return for a PRESTATION
SOCIAL FIELDS
-Systems of objective relations that are constituted by various species of capital, including symbolic and economic capital
-Every social field has a different way in which it is played by participant
HABITUS, according to Bourdieu
-The lasting bodily dispositions (subjective) acquired in response to the objective conditions (social fields) in which a person emerges and lives
-Enduring and difficult to change
-Include how perception is organized, tastes acquired and habits set into place
Bourdieu was influenced by...
-Mauss and Edmund Husserl
(subjective)
-Marx and Levi-Struass
(objective)
PIERRE BOURDIEU sought to...
reconcile subjective and objective approaches to the study of human society through the concepts of HABITUS and SOCIAL FIELD
According to Levi-Strauss, the structures of society was inaugurated and defined by...which were the effects of...
...the exchange of women, words, and things
...binary structures of the mind set in motion by the incest prohibition
According to Levi-Strauss, the binary structures of the mind were built on...
The archetype was...
...the same basis as the binary structures of language
...the phoneme
According to Levi-Strauss, THE INCEST TABOO was...
-The prohibition on sex with some segments of a social world
-content of the incest taboo altered cross culturally, but all societies prohibited sexual relations in some way
Levi-Strauss claimed all societies were built on the basis of:
1) the incest taboo
2) binary structures of the human mind
3) the exchange of women, words, and things
SYMBOLIC CAPITAL
The accumulation and circulation of forms of prestige in the social field
ECONOMIC CAPITAL
The accumulation and circulation of commodity wealth in the social field
HABITUS, according to Mauss
-from his essays (Psychology and Sociology)
-referring to those aspects of culture that are achored in the body of individuals in societies and that are not usually noticed as persons go about their daily practices
According to Marx, the two elements to the commodity are...
1) use value
2) exchange value
According to Marx, commodities are oriented toward...
profit
(dolla dolla bills y'all)
Commodity Capitalism and Social Roles and Moralities reduces...
-all labor values and social forms to the same abstract value
(abstract equivalence)

-all social roles and relations--such as gender, race, ethnicity, kinship--to one social relation and role
(buyer and seller)

-all moral systems to one moral system, that of profit
Commodity Fetish
Treating the products of social labor as the agents of social life thus inverting the real relationship among laborers and capitalists into a set of imaginary relationships among commodities (things).
Claude-Levi Strauss sought
the Universal features of Human Culture
Levi-Strauss was influenced by...
-Ferdinand Saussure
(structural linguistics)

-Marcel Mauss
(the gift)
Franz Boas' understanding of RACE:
commonly understood to refer to bodily and mental characteristics that differentiate one kind of human being from another
Franz Boas' understanding of RACISM
belief that these bodily and mental characteristics form a natural hierarchy within the human species
Franz Boas' point was...
intervene in debates during the 1920s and 30s about how the form and function of race affect people’s civilizational potential. Boas still presupposes that there are races and civilizational differences, but does not see race as an impediment to the achievement of civilization
Franz Boas' belief about RACIAL FORM and FUNCTION
changes according to social context and environment, race is plastic
Cesare Lombroso
-1835-1909
-Italian
-Founder of anthropological criminology
-Believed that there were two species of humankind (modern and primitive)
-Believed that lurking within modern societies were atavistic throwbacks.
ATAVISTIC
regression of racial and mental characteristics from a modern to premodern form
Lombroso's belief about anthropological criminology's role:
-Could pick out Atavistic people through a science of physiology
-Once Atavistic people located, they would not be allowed to intermarry or reproduce
Polygenesis
the belief that the human species is composed of several subspecies--races--that if intermarried would produce degenerate offspring
Monogenesis
the belief that all members of the human species have one origin
Boas' idea about the origin of humans
All members of the human species had one origin and the same cultural and civilizational capacities, but also believed there were more and less advanced societies
Francis Galton
-Founder of Eugenics movement
-Half-cousin of Charles Darwin
-Coined the term "eugenics" in his book Human Faculty
-Argued that any enlightened science of mankind should be concerned with the different mental and physical characteristics of the species so that a more perfect form of human being could be scientifically produced
American Eugenics Movement
Reacting to the closing of the American frontier and the threats of immigration from Latin America and Southern Europe
Scientific basis of race:
NONE!
No matter how one classifies the races, population genetics show that there are more genetic differences within a "race" than between races.
Current discussion of race
through the concept of culture and ethnicity
Gregory Bateson
-Student of Bronislaw Malinowski
-husband of Margaret Mead
-Interested in cybernetics, linguistic and cultural contact
Bateson's idea of "cultural contact"
colonial conflict and power
American Eugenics Movement
Reacting to the closing of the American frontier and the threats of immigration from Latin America and Southern Europe
Scientific basis of race:
NONE!
No matter how one classifies the races, population genetics show that there are more genetic differences within a "race" than between races.
Discussion of race
through the concept of culture and ethnicity
Gregory Bateson
-Student of Bronislaw Malinowski
-husband of Margaret Mead
-Interested in cybernetics, linguistic and cultural contact
Bateson's idea of "cultural contact"
colonial conflict and power
Sir James Frazer
-1845-1941
-Trinity College Cambridge, Classics
-Part of an emergent anthropology, before anthropology became systemized around the concepts of culture and society and the practice of field-work and of ethnographic writing
SOCIAL DARWINISM (Herbert Spencer)
-the strongest or fittest should survive and flourish in society, while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die
-critical of the Eugenics movement
-colonial justification: weaker races fade away under the onslaught of the superior English Culture
Scottish Englightenment
-1740-1790
-David Hume and Adam Smith best known
-in HISTORY, the Scots had a tendency to come with meta-sociological accounts of the "natural progress" of civilization
-Natural progress was based on a "CONJECTURAL HISTORY" approach in which one first established a conjectural model of history and then organized data to support one's conjectures
"ARMCHAIR ETHNOLOGY"
The study of human history, society, and culture from the perspective of written documents
Frazer's "armchair ethnology"
He sent standardized questionnaires to missionaries and government officials throughout the English Empire
The Golden Bough, a Comparative Study of Religion
-12 volumes
-1890-15
-Exemplary of Victorian armchair ethnology
-Literarary Modernists love it: T.s. Eliot and DH Lawrence
-New Human Sciences loved it: Freud Totem and Taboo
Frazer's definition of RELIGION
Religion is "the appeasement of super-human powers which are believed to control nature."
-theoretical and practical side (like magic) that we understand as faith and works (ritual based or ethically based)
-assumes that the order of nature is elastic or variable and uncontrollable by man (magic or science)
E. E. Evans-Pritchard
-Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic Among the Azande
-Social Anthropology
-Structural-functionalism
-Witchcraft condenses cause and effect (Science does too)