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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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System History outside west-
Premodern rise and fall of ancient empires
-Greece, Rome, Incas, Ottoman
-The West came to dominate
- World War one was first “Global” war
System History-
Dominated by great power politics
-System changes when polarity changes
-Astute diplomacy recognizes options and limitations
What was Europe like before nation states?
-Arbitrary Boundaries
- Varied types/sizes of units
-Between these units there are overlapping alliances
-Rulers Claimed divine right to rule
Peace of Westphalia [1648]
After 30 years of war:
-Modern State system
War Helped Create Modern States pg.50
-Defined Territory
-Permanent Population
-Diplomatic Recognition
-Legitimate authority and force
Why limited war in 18th century?
Mercenary Armies
-An expensive resource which monarchs did not want to “spend”
-Military Technology NOT powerful
-Limited tax resource to finance war
- Principle of non-destruction of states after a conflict:
-Monarchs were often related and valued stability above conquest
French Revolution changed war
-Peoples state fought monarchies
-To the death!
-Armies were cheaper thanks to Mass mobilization
-People were motivated by ideals of nationalism and self determination
Clausewitz “On War”
-Written during the Napoleonic wars
-Misinterpreted quote
-War is continuation of political activity by other means
-Not arguing for war
-Actually recognizing danger of total war
-Clausewitz was a realist who wanted war as a last resort
1815-1914 Limited war again: Why?
-Monarchs were busy with domestic challenges to their authority
-Financial and military exhaustion after destruction of Napoleonic wars
-Balance of power diplomacy preserved order through shifting alliances
-Recurring armed struggle. Prepare for war or accept domination
-Rise and fall of civilizations/empires
-resource demands
-bad leadership
-History made by the powerful0 hegernons
-Statecraft drawn from experience [but lessons may be badly learned]
-Thucydides & Machiavelli (realist) vs kant and Locke (liberals)
Beginning of 20th Century
-peaceful (on surface)
-Exception Russo-Jap war of 1904
-Prosperity and interdependence
-But system analysis notes problems
-Status deprivation of new powers
-Alliance rigidities making for a bipolar system
-Domestic level noticed nationalism
Environment of world wars 1+2
-Domestic level
-Most Europeans now had some for of representative democracy
-Industrialization & Mass production increased the potential for destruction
-Ideological rivalry between democracies and fascists
Opposing trends in system
- Integration
o Economic ties
o Technological possibilities
o Global Culture
- Fragmentation
o Ethno-nationalism
o Empire break up
-War in Afghanistan is about central Asia security: Regional subsystem
-Ex-Soviet Union republics to north
France says war possible
-Russia says no military solution possible
-US planning Airstrikes? Why
Why Study war?
Study conduct of war to improve tactics and technology
-study impact of a particular war on future decisions and on security
-finding causes
- assuming war is a slip from otherwise peaceful world
Individual level causes
-Human nature
-Aggression is innate
- violence is learn behaviour
- miscalculations
Domestic Factors
-Millitary- industrial complex
-conspiracy between makers and buyers
- may lead to war though arms race
Many domestic factors may lead to war
Domestic Factors
-Bureaucratic planning
-alleged bureaucratic planning could also be a factor
Domestic Factors
Form of government
-leaders who are more tyrannical more prone to war
-Democracies less prone to war, but intense combat
Domestic Factors
Newly formed states
-more likely to fight a war than older states
- One in 5 civil wars becomes interstate
o History of past disputes
o Poor internal mmunications
o Arms race spirals out of control
o Transition to democracy
System Explanations
- The fundamental explanation of warfare in system is structure
Multipolar structure
sees frequent, but less inense warfare
Bipolar structure
sees less frequent but more intense wars
Europe at time of WW2 was bipolar because of rigid alliance system
Security dilemma of self help states->
arms race
System level causes of WWI
- Interlocking alliances in Europe prior to WWI caused a polarity shift fromo multi to bipolar
-Germanys growing military was disrupting military balance of power
-British economy was slowing down and giving way to the german and American industrial machines
-Competition for empire within and outside Europe
Domestic level causes of wwI “unintended war”
- Cult of offensive
o Planners learned in Prussian wars that early mobilization brings victory
o Each side wanted troops to the front first
Conscription and mobilization
- Made war possible and threatened other states
Spark and Fuel
- Spark: Serbs assassinated heir to Austrian Throne, Archduke Ferdinand
- Fuel: Alliance system
o Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungry, Italy
o Triple Entente- Great Britan, France, Russia
-Germany backed Austria Hungry bringing in italy
-Russia backed serbs, involving France and Britain
Balkan Spark to powder keg
- Autria ultimatum to Serbs July 23, 1914 was not met fully
- Rapid mobilization by major powers followed:
o Germany used Belguim as route to France
o GB & France allied with Russia