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7 Cards in this Set

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Realist Paradigm
I. Humans are imperfect and have innate
desire for power
A. Anarchic system leaves states to
fend for themselves
B. Emphasize foreign vs. domestic
policy, military might and technolo-
gy, and national interests
C. Otto Von Bismark, balance of power
D. MAD Mutually Assured Destruction
E. Balance of power, hegemonic
stability, neorealism, structural
Idealist Paradigm
I. Humans are good (imperfect but perfectible) and institutions need to be developed to enable them to be the best they can be.
A. War can be prevented, proper int'l
institutions
- League of Nations- collective secur- ity "attack against one, attack aga-
inst all."
+ int'l law, forum to discuss war, &
threaten aggressors w/ military ac-
tion
+ Dem. nations only (US didn't join)
+ UN more successful
- Altruism is fundamental to the huma-
n condition. Cooperation min's risks
and max's benefits, pushes society
to evolve and change, gov'ts & stat-
es should work together
B. Marxism: Imperialism & Dependency
theories
C. Liberalism: Collective security,
regime theory, & neoliberalism
What is a state, non-state actors, power, int'l anarchy, polarity, balance of power, sovereignty, collective security?
STATE
1. Geographic territory with int'lly recognized boundaries
2. int'lly recognized & identifiable population that lives w/in those boundaries
3. int'lly recognized authority structure or gov't

NON-STATE ACTORS
- an int'l org. made up of groups or individuals recruited across state boundaries, either by profession or interest.
INT'L ANARCHY
-there is no higher being that can coordinate the actions of all states. Each state is dependent upon itself.

POLARITY
- power shifts, depending on which direction it favors, it changes the balnce of power in the int'l system as a whole. Multistate, bipolar, hegemonic

BALANCE OF POWER
-war is avoided by equilibrium of power dependent on power attributes (Military and economic), leadership, int'l involvement.

SOVEREIGNTY
1. No higher authority than a state exists.
2. No other state or int'l org. can compel that state against its will to do something it does not want to do.
3. The recognized gov't of a state makes all the decisions for the people in the name of whom it governs.

COLLECTIVE SECURITY
- A concept of owrld order maintaining that aggression could be deterred by promising overwhelming collective retaliation by the combined power of the world's states against any community member that pursued aggression. In other words, an attack against one is an attack against all. Collective security first took form in the League of Nations- which the US refused to join after WWI.
Concert of Europe
Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, its main priorities were to establish a balance of power, thereby preserving the territorial status quo, and to protect "legitimate" governments. It was the first serious attempt in modern times to establish an international society to maintain the peace. Britain withdrew over Canary Islands, nationalism, Russia gave up any sort of a pretense at supporting an altruistic "balance of powers" and made an expansionary thrust at the Ottoman Empire (Crimean War)
Bismarck's Peace
Secret alliances and constant maneuvering.
- 1879: Germany supports Russia if attacks Balkans
- 1881(Russia): Renewel of Three Emperors League if Russia breaks relations w/ France
- 1882 (Italy): German support against French incursions in N. Italy or N. Africa
- German continued support of British imperial interests.
- Peace isolates France
Leads to bi-polarity
1. Britain, France, & Russia
2. Germany, Austria, &Italy
Inter-War Period (League of Nations)
Wilson- states give up some sovereignty in exhange for security provided by agreed "rules of hte game.
Wilson's 14 Pts: International Norms
-uphold the doctrine of sovereignty
-an association of all nations (League)
-collective security Agreement (Covenant)
-Freedom on the seas & in trade
-Expanded role for int'l law
-borders based on self determination

Problems:
1. Unequal representation- all states must follow rules but don't have ability to make decisions about rules.
2. balance of pwr dynamics emerge

League of Nations
+ Paris Peace (1919) sets framework
- establish Supreme War Council
- 5 "Great Pwrs" are members (Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, & US)
+ League formally constituted in 1920

Exclusions from the League
1. Germany excluded b/c of France
2. Soviet Union- communist ideology
3. Japan from Council
4. Italy withdraws b/c not satisfied w/ Leagues covenants.
5. US withdraws support & membership

Weaknesses of League
1. major pwrs not involved
2. collective security mechanism gave every member veto pwr
3. unclear enforcement mechanisms
4. unresolved issues confronting states (colonialism, minorities)
Cold War (United Nations)
1947-1989- bi-polar int'l system w/ intense hostilities but no actual war