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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe a low context culture in terms of persuasion, the role of words and personal connections.
Persuasion- uses facts, is impersonal and showing emotion is not normal

Role of words- Used to inform and should be taken at face value

People have many connections but for shorter duration or for a specific amount of time. Cultural behavior and beliefs must be spelled out explicitly so that those coming into the environment know how to behave.
Describe a high context culture in terms of persuasion, the role of words and personal connections.
Persuasion- Facts cannot be separated from their source, is very personal, and emotion is used to 'move' the other party

Role of words- Words are used in conjunction wiht other forms of communication (silence, facial expressions).

People have close connections over a long period of time. Cultural behaviors are not made explicit because most members know what to do and what to think from year of interaction with eachother.
Russian word for restructuring. Describe in terms of Communism in Russia.
Perestroika where economic reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987.
Russian word for openness. Describe in terms of Communism in Russia.
Glasnost was also introduced by Gorbachev to pressure conservatives who opposed perestroika. He hoped they would open up debate and participation within the government.
* Seized power from Russian czars during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
* Led by Vladimir Lenin
* Follewed Karl Marx's ideas of communism, socialism and equality
Iron Curtain
* Refers to the boundary the physically, socially, and symbolically divided Eastern Europe and Western Europe from 1945 to 1990.
* "Fall of the Iron Curtain" marked the end of the Cold War and the disbandment of the USSR.
Descibe the management style of the Red Executives
Combine one-person leadership with collective leadership
1. Leader was to identify issues and set goals
2. Collective was to discuss the issue and submit a proposal
3. Leader made the decision
4. Collective implemented it
What were the three Russian Eras
Red Executive
What are some differences between Russian and Westerners concerning time
* Value the past and admire history
* Have a high respect for traditions
* Refer frequently to previous experiences
* Short-term oriented

* Value the present and the future
* Believe that traditions slow progress
* Focus on action and prefer exploring new things
* Long-term oriented
What are some differences between Russian and Westerners concerning planning
* The plan is the ultimate end-task
* Plan must be executed by all means in the way that it was defined
* Short term orientation; goals are not achieved until the plan is executed

* The plan is only a starting point and needs to be adjusted continuously
* Planning is a long-term activity
* To be successful, one must reassess and readjust the plan
What are some differences between Russian and Westerners concerning control
* Prefer control over feedback
* Control is top-down
* Exercised by using rewards and punishments
* Reflects their history of bureaucracy

* Prefer feedback instead of control
* Control is intrinsic and continuous
* Oriented towards involvement
* Reflects their sense of equality and everyone helping to contribute
What are some obstacles Westerns might face when dealing with Russians and change
* Russians viewed Westerns as outsiders with an us vs them mentality
* Russians prefer to adapt to the environment instead of trying to transform it
* Westerns establishing relationships to gain trust and make change go smoother
* Russians would like to be involved in the change and would be more likely to accept it
What can Westerners do to reduce the differences and obstacles?
* Establish relationships at all levels of the organization, not just higher up positions
* Be consistent with words and actions especially when talking about equality and money
* Time and planning: Because of their high need for planning, create smaller goals that add up to a big picture
Two dimensions of the Ping Pong Model in Chinese negotiations
1. States of Sino-Western business negotiation process
2. Dimensions of Chinese business culture
What are the three stages of Sino-Western negotiation process?
1. Pre-Negotiation
2. Formal Negotiation
3. Post Negotiation
What are the four aspects of Pre-Negotiation
1. Lobbying
2. Presentation
3. Informal discussion
4. Trust building
Must convince the Chinese government that they have cutting-edge technology and are committed to the Chinese market
May be required to present to many different groups of people
Informal discussion
Concered with technology and price
Trust building
Establishing friendship, showing hospitality
What are the three aspects of Formal Negotiation
1. Task-related exchange information
2. Persuasion
3. concessions and agreement
Task-related exchange information
1. Equity share
2. Contribution of each party
3. Management control
4. Technology
5. Price
The Chinese wanting to do business their way
Concessions and agreement
Signing of the contract; Applying pressure to reach an agreement by a certain time
What is an aspect of Post Negotiation
Implementations and new rounds of Negotiations- Just because the contract was signed don't mean the negotiation process is over
What are the three dimensions of Chinese business culture?
1. the PRC condition
2. Confucianism
3. Strategems
Define the PRC Condition and give the 8 aspects of it.
A contemporary social and institutional factor influencing the PRC
1. Politics
2. Economic planning
3. Legal framework
4. Technology
5. Great size
6. Backwardness
7. Rapid change
8. Chinese bureaucracy
PRC Condition - Politics
Socialist state influences every aspect of Chinese life
PRC Condition - Economic Planning
Centralized chracterized by government control
PRC Condition - Legal framework
Law is subjected to ideology and influenced by human factors
PRC Condition - Technology
Short on technology which is why they opened their economy in 1978
PRC Condition - Great size
Huge population and population density
PRC Condition - Backwardness
Behind on technology, relatively poor country
PRC Condition - Rapid change
Reform and technology has brought big change to China
PRC Condition - Chinese bureaucracy
Desicion making requires group consensus
Define Confucianism and give its 6 aspects
2500-year-old philosophical tradition that influences Chinese thinking and ways of behaving
1. Moral cultivation
2. Importance of interpersonal relationships
3. Family and group orientation
4. Respect for age and hierarchy
5. Avoidance of conflict and need for harmony
6. Chinese face
Describe totalitarianism and singularism
* It is the idea of one party that everyone supports and follows
* Characterized by a lack of political freedom
* Feeling of a collectivist society which is embedded into socialism
What four types of government has totalitarianism manifested itself in?
1. Communism - socialism by violence
2. Theocratic - govern according to religious beliefs
3. Tribal - based on tribal principles
4. Right Wing or Secular - military leadership
Describe democracy and pluarlism
* More than one prevailing view can exist
* Political rights and civil liberties
What are some political rights and civil liberties associated with democracy
Political rights
* Fair and competitive elections
* Safeguards for minority rights
* Power given to elected officials
Civil liberties
* Freedom of press
* Equality under the law
* Personal social freedoms
Define a centrally-planned economy
Strong state planning and governmental control. The state controls the factors of production and makes all the decisions about their use and about the distribution of income
What are 5 ethical conflicts?
1. Bribery/extortion
2. Human rights
3. Finacial reporting
4. Product safety
5. Responsibility to the environment
What are 6 ethical conflict resolutions
1. Forcing
2. Educating
3. Avoiding
4. Collaboration
5. Negotiation
6. Accommodating
Define forcing and give an example.
Decision maker imposes his ethical view on the other party regardless of other countries values

Copyright Calvin Klein example
Define educating and give an example
Attempts to lear about one's own and others' point of view. Sometimes it is inteded to convert others to one's own position

Shell International and sustainable development
Define avoiding and give an example
Decision-maker chooses to ignore or not deal with the conflict and it remains unresolved

IBM and bribery
Define Collaborating and give an example
Both parties choose to confront the conflict and work together to develop and mutally satisfying solution

Polaroid, apartheid and South Africa
Define negotiation
Both parties give up something to reach a settlement. This usually leads to feelings of dissatisfacion and as though the conflict has not been resolved
Define accomodating and give an example
One party adapts to the ethics of another party

Burns and McAllister women policy
What are three strategies for dealing with ethical conflicts?
1. Moral signifigance
2. Power
3. Urgency
Define moral significance and which type of conflict resolution would be used.
Values that are central to an individual, company or society and are widely shared.

Japanese vs. US on gift giving - Accomodation
Define power and which type of conflict resolution would be used.
Decision-maker's ability to influence the outcomes of a conflict, ranging from complete control to no influence at all

Force- might be unethical; Educate
Define urgency and which type of conflict resolution would be used.
Need for immediate action and can range from highly urgent to not at all urgent

Tend to us forcing or avoiding when decision-making is urgent even though collaboration would be more positive
Define cultural universals and give three of them
Key elements shared by all groups of people throughout the history of man. Studying these elements help us understand how and why groups of people live together as they do
1. Respect for core human values, which determine the absolute moral threshold for all business activies
2. Respect for local traditions
3. The belief that context matters when deciding what is right and what is wrong
A harmonious business tone that reflects the need to establish a common ground
Refers to a business as a "house"
Someone who is inside the "house"
Someone who is outside the "house"
A harmonious business tone that should be established during the first meeting
Debt of gratitude that can never be repaid