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27 Cards in this Set

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What are the defining characteristics of individualism?
- individuals are independent of one another
- people are driven by a desire to satisfy individual goals and achieve autonomy and uniqueness
- relationships are subject to cost-benefit analysis and continue only so long as they are mutually beneficial
- people value having many different unique or distinctive personal attitudes and opinions
- expression of emotion is encouraged
- direct communication is preferred
- ones internal attributes determine behavior
What are the defining characteristics of collectivism?
- individuals are bound and obligated to groups with whom they share a common fate, goals, and values
- people are driven by desire to fir inot the group, make the group proud, and meet the expecations of and obligations to the group
- Group members are a fixed "fact of life"
- Boundaries between in groups and out groups are stable, relativly impermeable, and important
- People value a willingness to sacrifice for the common group, maintain harmonious relatioships with close others, humility, deference, and self-effacement
- Expression of emotions is discouraged
- Indirect communication is preferred
- Social role obligations, expectations of others, situational demands, and social norms determine behavior
What is the relationship between employers and employees in an organization that is individualistic?
- Short term, with employees changing companies are their own discretion
- Organizations are primarily interested in teh work that employees perform, and not their personal or family lives
How does decision making and accountability occur in organizations that are high on individualism?
- Important decisions tend to be made by individuals
- Accountability for organizational successes and failures rest with individuals
How does selection take place in high individualistic organizations?
- Selection focuses on employees KSAs
How does recruitment take place in highly individualistic organizations?
- less emphasis is placed on rewarding loyalty
How are compensation and promotions done in highly individualistic organizations?
- based on equity
How are performance appraisals done in highly individualistic organizations?
- job specific knowledge and individual work outcomes are stressed
How is training done in individualistic organizations?
- Most effective when focused on individual capabilities
What is the focus of job design in individualistic organizations?
- jobs are designed individually to maximize individual capabilities
What are conflict resolution tactics like in individualistic organizations?
- direct and solution-oriented
What is the relationship between EEs and EEs in collectivistic organizations?
- Long term: from recruitment to retirement
- ERs are responsible for the welfare of EEs
How is decision making and accountability in collectivistic organizations?
- important decisions are made by the group
- successes and failures of the organization are attributed to the group
How is selection done in collectivistic organizations?
- based on relational skills or EE
- personal relationships are key
How is recruitment done in collectivistic organizations?
- internally, based on loyalty
- often based on personal relationships
How is compensation and promotion done in collectivistic organizations?
- through equality and need
- individual rewards can cause disharmony
How are performance appraisals done in collectivistic organizations?
- based on employee loyalty and harmony in interpersonal relations
How is training done in collectivistic organizations?
- most efficient when focused on group capabilities
What is the focus on job design in collectivistic organizations?
- jobs are designed to maximize the social aspects of the job
How is conflict resolved in collectivistic organizations?
- through avoidance, compromise, obligation, and accomodation
What are the main findings of R and C?
Collectivistic organizations have the following correlations:
(-) for test-based selection
(-) for formalized systems of performance appraisal
(-) for equity based rewards
(+) for equality based rewards
(+) for HRM practices emphasizing job security
(-) for promotions systems based on merit
These findings were conservative because tests were used on US MBA students
What are the characteristics of low PD?
- each individual is respected
- appreciation for what each individual has to offer
- people expect upward mobility in their class and job
What are the characteristics of high PD?
- inequalities are natural and functional
- those with less power are protected by those with more power in exchange for loyality and obedience; reciprocal relationship
What are the 4 predictors of power distance?
- religion and philosophy
- tradition of democratic principles in government
- existence of strong middle class
- proportion of immigrants in society
What is knowledge flow like in Low PD?
bi-directional
what does empowerment do in low PD?
it increases employee satisfaction
how do fluid work groups function in low PD?
it aids in adapting to changes quickly