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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Clash of civilizations
Samuel huntington: conflicts between 9 major world civilizations
Asymmetric threats
threats from smaller powers leveraged through use of technology
clash of civilizations
c
constitutional orders
international order based on constitutional rules and institutions (like constitutional domestic governments)
end of history
Francis Fukuyama: spread of democracy and achievement of universal and equal recognition, struggle for recognition, violence and conflict end
genocide
systematic persecution of/extermination based on national, ethnic, religious Identity
global war on terror
Aftermath of sept. 11, 2001, realist-oriented initiative, root out defeat leaders of terrorism worldwide
International Court of Justice
UNs main judicial institution, arbitrate international disputes
International Criminal Court
2002: permanent tribunal to persecute war crimes
Intifada
arabic term for uprising, refer to Palistinian campeigns to end Israeli military occupation and oppose US troops in Iraq
jihad
holy war, physical struggle against western civ. in the name of islam
Oslo Accords
1993: agreements between palestinian gov. and israel for Israel to withdraw from west bank, Israel and PLO recognize eachother
Peacekeeping activities
UN monitoring of ceasefire, separating combatants
peace enforcement activities
UN actions compell countries through threat of force to follow UN resolutions
preemption
policy to use force to head off potential threats when threaten to attack rather than when really attack
rogue states
states systematically seek acquire nuclear weapons possible intent of passing on to terrorists
Rogue states
c
Shiites
minority sect of islam with 7th century radical group advocating divine selection not election
Strategic Arms reduction talks (START)
1980's-90's: lowered amount of nuclear weapons from 12,000 to 3,000
Sunnis
majority branch of islam, identifies with caliphs
Terrorism
use of violence against citizens to advance political aims
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
1968: prevent spread of nuclear weapons while fostering civilian use of nuclear power
Universal declaration of human rights
1948: UN declaration: obligation of state to individuals, not individuals to states
Wahhabism
1700s: puritan form of islam from arabic spiritual leader
arms race
competitive buildup of weapons systems
balance of terror
fear if other side attacks will use nuclear weapons: must prepare for all forms of conflict to avoid nuclear war
Baruch Plan
1946: US plan, international agency under UN to cooperatively manage nuclear weapons
Berlin Blockade
1948-49: first physical confrontation of Cold War
Cold war
45 years, massive arms buildup and proxy wars
Containment
US checks soviet military power by creating alliances
decolonization
c
detente
1960s: phase of cold war, France and Germany= diplomatic overtures to Russia
escalation dominance or compellence
deterrence strategy: resolve conflicts without use of unacceptable force. States incrementally match arms capabilities, discouraging adversary from going farther up the ladder: choose between unacceptable escalation and compromise
filandization
Conflict solution: each side agrees toleration of different domestic system, agree to cooperate on foreign policy
helsinki accords
1975: agreements concering arms control, trade, encourage exchange and interdependence
Iron Curtain
metaphor for political/ideological curtan between Soviet Union and western countries
long telegram
1946: George Kennan: argue policy of containment
minimum deterrence
relatively few nuclear weapons that can survive strike and threaten unacceptable damage
Mutual assured defense
reagan, Star Wars initiative: defensive built up, offensive built down, share defense technology with soviet union
Mutual assured Destruction (MAD)
deterrencec: dominance of destructive weapons at each level of potential escalation
: if each side can relatiate and assure certain amount of destruction, nobody wants to strike
national wars of liberation
Developing country revolutions v. western colonialism, proxy wars during cold war
nonaligned movement
Led by India, Yugoslavia, Egypt: neutrality in cold war, nonintervention in domestic affairs of new states, international aid for third world development
peace research studies
study processes for peace, opposed to study balance of power and war
perimeter deterrence
Cold war strategy: confront disputes early in peripheral, former colonial areas, prevent from escalating into central stakes of Europe
Potsdam conference
July 1945: meeting of wartime allies, unable to reach agreement on Unification of Germany and other issues
proxy wars
superpowers sponsor conflicts in third parties to avoid direct conflict
puppet government
governments supported, installed by foreign states, act in interest of foreign state
revisionist interpretation
interpretation of origins of cold war: American ideological/economic aggression against soviet union and allies= cause
rollback
1950s: John Foster Dulles: recover eastern europe from Moscows control
spheres of influence
v
Star Wars
n
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
f
strongpoint deterrence
n
Truman Doctrine
h
Yalta Conference
j
Appeasement
j
Chain-ganging
k
exeptionalism
k
League of Nations
k
lebensraum
k
self-determination
l
unanimity
k
Entente Cordialek
k
hypernationalism
k
irredentism
lk
liberal nationalism
l
militant nationalism
l
power conversion
k
preemptive war
lo
preventive war
l
Social darwinism
k
socialist nationalism
k
Triple Alliance
lk
Triple Entente
l
Zollverein
k
Buckpassing
k
city league
k
city state
i
concert of europe
k
congress of vienna
k
empire
k
equilibrium
k
exogenous variables
l
nationalism
k
nation-staqte
l
Quadruple alliance
k
Quintuple alliancec
k
raison d'etat
k
sovereignty
kl
territorial state
lk
transnational relations
lk
Treaty of utrecht
k
treaty of westphalia
l
alliances
k
anarchy
k
balance of power
k
bandwagoning
k
beliefs
k
collective goods
lk
constructivism
k
deterrence
stop attack before it happens by threatening retaliation
diplomacy
discussions and negotiations among states, emphasized by liberal perspective
disarmement
mutual reduction of arms by international agreements or convention
distribution of identities
relative relationship of identities among those in international system in terms of similarities and differences
foreign policy level of analysis
between systemic policy and dometic: foreign policy dictates decisions
geopolitics
location and geography= basis of national interests
hegemon
dominant power in international system
human security
focus: violence, securiy within states and village at local levels, esp. v. women and minorities
non-zerro sum
situations in which all parties can gain
norms
ideas governing procedural, substantive terms of state behavior (reciprocity, human rights)
power
material capabilities of a counry (size of population, territory, resources, economic capability, military size)
power balancing
realist school: hegemoney= destabilizing, war when dominant power emerges and threaten equilibrium
power transition
realist school: hegemon good, war when rising power challenges declining one and balance of power approaches equilibrium
preponderence of power
aggregation of power: deter/punish aggressors collective security
prisoners dilemma
realist perspective: rationally choose not to cooperate to avoid even worse outcomes
regimes
informal international arrangements: coordinate expectations, norms, goals of governments
security dilemma
arm to defend self, in process threaten other states
self help
self defense from anarchy
soft pwoer
s
states
largest actors in international system that can legitimately use force
values
ideas expressing deep moral convictions
zero sum
one actor gains, one loses
counterfactual reasoning
test causality claims: if event a had not happened, would b have happened?
ethics and morality
standards of good conduct for human behavior
judgment
assesment of what makes sense after getting as many facts/ testing as many perspectives as possible
pragmatism
morality is proportianate to what is possible: do what can to uphold standards, but not be dogmatic
rationalist method
things can be described as sequence of causal events
relativism
truth, morality relative to each culture, live and let live
universalism
truth and morality are universal: cannot adjust behavior to circumstances without leading to relativism