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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Internal Validity
Internal Validity – extent to which changes in the DV can confidently be attributed to the influence of the IV rather than to the potential influence of confounding variables
Experimental Control
Experimental Control – occurs to the extent that experimenter is able to eliminate effects on the DV other than the effect of the IV
Extraneous variables
Extraneous variables - any variable that is not systematically manipulated in an experiment but that still may effect the behavior being observed (tends to increase within-group variability making it more difficult to find differences in experimental conditions on the DV) – reduces POWER!
a. examples: initial differences within groups (e.g., ability, mood, motivation) & differences in how experimenter treats participants or differences in how participants react to experimental setting)
Confounding variables
Confounding variables – variables other than the IV on which the participants in one condition differ systematically from those in another condition (results in inability to eliminate alternative explanations for findings)
Control of extraneous variables
Control of extraneous variables - one type of extraneous variable is initial within-group differences – produces random error & lowers power (INCREASES Type 2 errors) – goal is to reduce – can do so by using:
Limited population design
Limited population design – select participants from a limited (homogeneous) population (e.g., college students)
Before-after research designs
Before-after research designs – designs in which the dependent measure is assessed both prior to and after the experimental manipulation has occurred