Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 things metastasize to vertebral column
(BLT with kosher pickle)
Relationship between Digoxin and potassium
Dig competes with K for binding site on NA/K pump. So, hypokalemia gives Dig a competitive edge, creating a relative toxicity. When dig levels are too high, K can't bind and hyperkalemia is the result.
3 signs of critical Aortic Stenosis
1. chest pain
2. syncope
3. heart failure
Hypertensive emergency
Signs of end-organ damage:
headache, change in vision,
chest pain, EKG changes (ST changes - concave ok, but straight or tombstoning bad)
5 Mechanisms of hypoxemia
1. Low FiO2 (altitude)
2. Hypoventilation (drugs, CNS, resp fatigue)
3. V/Q mismatch (emphysema, PNA, asthma)
4. Shunt (ARDS, CHF, PE)
5. Diffusion abnl (uncommon and controversial - early PCP maybe)
Describe paradoxical respiratory motion
Nl: diaphragm contracts down w/ inspiration, pushing abd out
Paradox: diaphragm is tired/ paralyzed, so with inspiration, intrathoracic pressure decreases and diaphragm is sucked up into chest, pulling abd inward
Haldane effect
deoxygenated hemoglobin has decreased affinity for O2 increased CO2 (if you've let go of your O2 already, you want it to be able to pick up whatever CO2 is around), oxygenated hemoglobin has decreased affinity for CO2
Non-gap metabolic acidosis is associated with what?
How to get rid of excess K? (5 ways)
1. Diuretics (pee it out)
2. Kayexalate (bind it up)
3. B-agonist
4. Insulin (+glucose)
5. Bicarb
(these 3 push it into cells)
**give Ca gluconate for cardiac protection (increases firing threshold)
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
esophageal webs
burning sensation on tongue
big red tongue
women > men
Signs of cor pulmonale
rvh w/ parasternal lift
loud pulmonic sound
split s2
(neck vein distention, peripheral edema, liver enlargement)
Permanent thick, abnl dilated bronchial walls with destruction of cilia
Marked by excessive sputum and purulent exacerbations with mild hemoptysis.
ppt'd by infection with obstruction or impaired drainage - usu in childhood
pneumonia ass'd with bronchiectasis (agents and tx)
usu pseudomonas or staph aureus
Tx= resp fluoroquinolone + aminoglycoside
onset after viral URI, may be ass'd with RA
usu self-limited, but may leave perm damage
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing PNA
-inflammatory dz that looks like PNA
-flu-like sx
tx w/ steroids
drugs responsible for interstitial lung dz
CXR has ground glass appearance with bilateral alveolar infiltrates that resemble a BAT
Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis
Histiocytosis X
ass'd with Langerhans cells
Smokers get it and smoking cessation may stabilize or reverse dz
CXR - honeycomb
CT - cystic lesions
Lupus in the lung
"shrinking lung" due to diaphragmatic dysfn and atelectasis
presents with fever, dyspnea, hemoptysis
given for benzo OD
3 sx of critical aortic stenosis
1. Chest Pain
2. Syncope
3. Heart failure
(also dyspnea, murmur)
Sx of pericarditis
sudden sharp stabbing substernal pain, radiation to trapezius
-relieved by sitting forward, worse on inspiration/lying flat
*may be preceded by URI
EKG signs of pericarditis
ST elevation
PR depression
Wide mediastinum
think about Aortic dissection
What do you have to worry about after an MI?
Mechanical dysfn (2-7 d out)
1. papillary rupture-->mitral regurg (can--> pulm edema and hypotension)
2. VSD
3. Left Ventricular free wall rupture-->cardiac tamponade
Causes of hemolytic anemia
1. sickle
2. hereditary spherocytosis
3. g6pd
4. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
5. Paroxysmal Noct Hematuria
Spherocytes and Coombs test
hereditary sphero = Coombs neg
AHA = coombs pos
Which hemolytic anemia can
--> myelodysplasia, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, and acute leukemia?
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hematuria
sx include back, abd, msk pain
tx: usu BMT
def of anchor proteins --> chronic intravasc hemolysis and complement mediated lysis of RBCs, WBCs, plts (pancytopenia)
Agents & treatment of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
E.coli (also Klebsiella and Strep pneumo)

Empirically treat with 3rd gen ceph or fluoroquinolone while awaiting C&S
abdominal pain, obstipation
Plain films: omega loop sign (bent inner tube) - sigmoidal (most common) --> non-operative reduction via sigmoidoscopy
coffee bean sign (cecal) - younger pts as congenital lack of fixation --> emergency surgery
Crohn's disease associated with
strictures, fistulae, noncaseating granulomas, sm bowel fat creeping, pseudomembranes
Electrolyte imbalances in bulimia
hypochloremia, hypokalemia
HACEK bacteria
You suspect aortic dissection, confirm it with TEE, now do what?
Give IV B-blocker immediately to dec BP and HR
(can later give IV vasodilator, if needed, to control BP)
If it is in the ascending aorta, prep for surgery.