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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
IL-1 source
secreted by macrophages
IL-1 function
induces acute phase reaction, fever.
IL-2 source
secreted by T cells in an autocrine fashion
IL-2 function
stimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. Can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer
IL-3 secreted by:
secreted by T cells
IL-3 function
stimulates bone marrow stem cells.
IL-4 source
TH2-cells,Just activaed Nive CD4+ cell, memory CD4+ cells
IL-4 function
involved in proliferation of B cells and the development of T cells and mast cells. Important role in allergic responses
IL-5 function
role in differentiation of B cells, eosinophil production, and IgA production
IL-6 secreted by:
induces acute phase reaction
Acute-phase proteins
class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction.
In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages) secrete a number of cytokines into the bloodstream, most notable of which are the interleukins which are:
IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, and TNF-alpha.
The liver responds by producing a large number of:
acute-phase reactants.
IL-7 function
involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, development, and homeostasis
IL-8 function
Neutrophil chemotaxis
IL-9 function
stimulates mast cells
IL-10 function
inhibits Th1 cytokine production
IL-11 function
acute phase protein production
IL-12 secreted by:
secreted by macrophages
IL-12 function
NK cell stimulation, Th1 cells induction
IL-13 function
Stimulates growth and differentiation of B-Cells, inhibits Th1 cells and the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines
IL-14 function
controls the growth and proliferation of B cells
Induces production of Natural Killer Cells
chemoattracts immune cells expressing the cell surface molecule CD4
Induces production of inflammatory cytokines
Induces production of Interferon-Gamma (IFNγ)
regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes
the major cell type of the epidermis, making up about 90% of epidermal cells
Induces proliferation in natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells
Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin in hepatoma cell lines
homodimers are involved in type II interferon signalling, and binds to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) promoter to induce expression of ISG (Interferon Stimulated Genes).
tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by a number of kinases
Increases angiogenesis but reduces CD8 T-cell infiltration
Plays important roles in tumor suppression, wound healing and psoriasis by influencing cell survival
Induces the production IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate eosinophil expansion
Enhances secretion of IL-10 and IL-8 and cell surface expression of CD54 on epithelial cells
Regulates the activity of B and T lymphocytes
Plays a role in immune defense against viruses
Plays a role in host defenses against microbes
Forms one chain of IL-27
May play a role in inflammation of the skin
Induces monocytes and macrophages to secrete TNF-α, IL-8 and CXCL2
Induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokines
Autocrine motility factor
a cytokine and tumor marker
a family of small cytokines, or proteins secreted by cells
Stem cell factor (SCF)
a growth factor important for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and other hematopoietic progenitor cells
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) secreted by:
glycoproteins which bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells and thereby activate intracellular signaling pathways which can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF)
paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor.
Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) secreted by
mesenchymal cells
Mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs
multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.
hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor targets and acts primarily upon
epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells.
hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor a major role in:
embryonic organ development in adult organ regneration and wound healing
Interferons (IFNs)
natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells.
Interferons assist the immune response by
inhibiting viral replication within other cells of the body.
Leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF
an interleukin 6 class cytokine, is a chemical in cells that affects their growth and development.
LIF derives its name from
its ability to induce the terminal differentiation of myeloid leukaemic cells
loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and anorexia (a significant loss of appetite - not anorexia nervosa) in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
LIF is used in
stem cell culture. It keeps stem cells in an undifferentiated status.
a subset of cytokines that are produced by immune cells
Lymphokines, which are produced by T cells, direct
the immune system response by signaling between its cells.
Lymphokines attract
macrophages to the infected site and prepare them to attack the invaders.
Cytokines produced by mononuclear phagocytes are ______
Oncostatin M (OSM)
a pleitropic cytokine that belongs to the Interleukin 6 group of cytokines
Oncostatin M (OSM) closely resembles:
Leukemia inhibitory factor in both structure and function.
Oncostatin M (OSM) may also function as:
proving important in liver development, haematopoeisis, inflammation and possibly CNS development.
Osteopontin is an extracellular structural protein and therefore an organic component of bone.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)
a biological protein that comes in three isoforms called TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3;
TGF-β family is part of a superfamily of proteins known as the:
transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes inhibins, activin, anti-müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein, decapentaplegic and Vg-1
TGF beta controls pro______, differentiation, and other functions in most cell types.
TGF beta can also act as:
a negative autocrine growth factor.
Tumor necrosis factors (or the TNF-family)
group of cytokines family which can cause apoptosis.
programmed cell death (PCD