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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Nonverbal communication is often used to
accent, compliment, control, substitute
a.c.c.s.
Politeness
is a universally desirable trait across most cultures
Inclusion
Instead of trying to emphasize the exclusion of one or more members, including all members.
Assertiveness
lack of reluctancy to do stuff
How to communicate assertively
Describe the problem, State how this problem affects you, propose solutions that are workable and allow the person to save face, confirm understanding, respect your own assertiveness.
Message Characteristics
Messages are packaged
Rule governed
Vary in abstraction
Vary in politeness
Vary in inclusion
Vary in assertiveness
Messages and meanings –
Meanings are in people.
Meaning is more than words and gestures
Meaning is unique
Meanings are context based.
Intentional Orientation
– refers to the tendency to view people, objects, and events in terms of how they’re talked about or labeled rather than in terms of how they actually exist.
Allness
the tendency to describe the world in extreme terms that imply one knows all or is saying all there is to say.
Extensional Orientation
– is the opposite, the tendency to look first at te actual people, objects, and events and then at the labels
Fact-inference confusion
the tendency where barriers to clear thinking can be created wehen inferences are treated as facts
Inferential statement
a statement that you make not solely on the basis of what you observe but on the basis of what you observe plus your own conclusions
Pragmatic implications
an inference based on knowlge
Denotation –
objective definition
Conotation
subjective or emotional meaning
Indiscrimination –
occurs when you focus on classes of individuals, objects, or events and fail to see that each is unique and needs to be looked at individually.
Index
a verbal or mental subscript that identifies each individual in a group as an individual even though all members of the group may be covered by the same label.
Stereotype
– a relatively fixed mental picture of some group that is applied to each individual of the group without regard to his or her unique qualities
Polarization
often referred to as the fallacy of “either or”
Static evaluation
when you retain an evaluation, despite the changes in the person or thing.
Disconfirmation -
is a communication pattern in which you ignore a persons presence as well as that persons communications
Rejection
in rejection you disagree with the person; you indicate your unwillingness to accept something the other person says or does.
Confirmation
you acknowledge the presence of the other person and indicate your acceptance of this person.
Racist Language
expresses racist attitudes
Review – Language ...
symbolizes Reality.
Language expresses both facts and inferences
Body Gestures, kinesics –
emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors.
Emblems –
substitutes for words, specific translations , “ok”, “peace”
Illustrators
accompany and literally illustrate the verbal message, up for up, circle for circle, so on.
Affect displays
movements of the face that convey emotional meaning – the expressions that show anger and fear.
Regulators
– monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual.mm-mm, tsk, keep going, slow down
Adaptors
– satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious awareness; they’re unintentional movements that usually go unnoticed. Scratching so on
Alter-adaptors
are the body movements you make in response to your current interactions. Ex. Crossing arms when someone gets to close.
Object-adaptors
those movements that involve your manipulation of some object
Visual dominance
person who maintains higher level of eye contact
Civil inattention
perverting your eyes to avoid intrusion
Haptics
– touch communication.
- playfulness
- control of others
- ritualistic like shaking hands
- task-related – sweeping off dust of someones shoulder ect.
Touch voidance
avoiding touch.
Paralanguage –
the vocal (but nonverbal) dimension of speech, the manner in which you say something.
Functions of silence
allows speaker time to think, time to formulate and organize, communicate emotional responses, show when you have nothing to say.
Proxemics
spatial communication
Protection theory
holds that you establish a body buffer zone around yourself as you protection against unwanted touching or attach.
Equilibrium theory
holds that intimacy and distance vary together.