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53 Cards in this Set

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What is in the integumentary system?
Skin, Hair, Nails and Glands.
What are its functions?
It functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature.
What is the body's largest organ?
The skin
Integument in Latin means?
To cover
What is the most important function of the integumentary system?
Protection
What composes the two main layers of the skin?
Epidermis and Dermis
What is the outer layer of the skin?
Epidermis
What is the epidermis composed of?
Dead skin cells
Cells in the epidermis undergo what?
Mitosis, rapid cell division
What happens to the older cells?
The older cells become Flattened, Lose their Cellular Contents and begin making keratin.
What is keratin?
KERATIN IS A TOUGH FIBROUS PROTEIN AND FORMS THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF HAIR, NAILS, AND CALLUSES
Forms of keratin in animals are?
cow horns, reptile scales, bird feathers, and porcupine quills.
How often are dead cells washed away?
THIS OUTER LAYER OF DEAD CELLS IS SHED OR WASHED AWAY ONCE EVERY *14-28* DAYS
What cells produce melanin?
Melanocytes
Do light and dark skinned people have the same amount of melanocytes?
Yes, the difference is the amount of melanin the melanocytes produce.
The amount of melanin produced in the skin depends on what two things?
Heredity and ultra-violet radiation
What can too much UV rays lead to?
Melanoma cancer
Are there blood vessels in the epidermis?
No
WHAT IS THE INNERMOST THICK LAYER OF THE SKIN COMPOSED OF LIVING CELLS?
The dermis
What does the dermis contain?
blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sense organs, smooth muscles and hair folicles
What does the dermis help to control?
Body temperature
What is the muscle attached to Hair Follicles?
Arrector Pili Muscles
What skin layer is beneath the dermis?
The Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer
What are the functions of the hypodermis?
A LAYER OF FAT AND LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT INSULATES THE BODY AND ACTS AS AN ENERGY RESERVE.
What type of glands does the dermis contain?
Sweat and sebaceous glands.
What do sebaceous glands produce?
Sebum, it's production is controlled by hormones.
What is the function of sebum?
It coats the surface of the skin and the shafts of hair, preventing excess water loss and lubricating and softening the Skin and Hair.
What connects oil glands to hair follicles?
Tiny ducts of Exocrine glands
What happens when ducts become clogged with sebum?
Acne or comedo
What causes a blister?
When the layers of the dermis and epidermis are seperated?
What causes callouses?
When there is pressure on the skin, causing more mitosis and a thicker epidermis
What is a first degree burn?
ONLY THE SUPERFICIAL EPIDERMIS IS BURNED, AND IS PAINFUL BUT NOT BLISTERED
What is a second degree burn?
DEEPER LAYERS EPIDERMIS ARE EFFECTED, COULD HAVE INFLAMMATION, BLISTERS, AND THE BURNED SKIN IS OFTEN PAINFUL.
What is a third degree burn?
THE ENTIRE EPIDERMIS IS CHARRED OR BURNED AWAY, AND THE BURN MAY EXTEND INTO THE DERMIS. OFTEN SUCH A BURN IS NOT PAINFUL AT FIRST, IF THE RECEPTORS IN THE DERMIS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.
What happens after serious burns?
LIVING TISSUE IS EXPOSED TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION AND DEHYDRATION.
Where are hair follicles?
In the dermis?
What is hair made of?
Dead cells that have filled with keratin.
What does hair get is color from?
melanin
What is the purpose of hair?
To protect and insulate the body.
What do nails grow from?
Nails grow from an area of rapidly dividing cells called the nail matrix.
Where is the nail matrix?
At the tips of fingers and toes
Which grow faster fingernails or toenails?
Fingernails
What receptor senses cold?
The Bulbs of Krause
What receptor senses heat?
Corpuscle of Ruffin
What receptor senses pressure?
Pacinian Corpuscle
What receptor senses touch?
Merkel's Disc
What senses pain?
Nerve receptors
What is the outermost layer of the epidermis and is made of dead, flat skin cells?
Stratum corneum
What is the thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis. It is found beneath the stratum corneum of thick skin, such as that on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. It is the waterproof layer of skin and is also called the BARRIER LAYER of the skin
Stratum lucidum
What is the layer of skin contains 1 to 3 rows of flattened cells whose cytoplasm contain small granules. The granules contain proteins being transformed into the waterproofing protein keratin.
Stratum granulosum
What is the multi-layered arrangement of cuboidal cells that sits beneath the stratum granulosum. Adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes giving them the spiny appearance from which their name is derived
Stratum spinosum
What is the The stratum basale is the deepest layer of the epidermis. It is only one cell thick and has a basement membrane upon which it is adhered, superficial to the dermis
Stratum basale
What is decubitis?
Bed sores