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164 Cards in this Set

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Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by differences in
quantity of melanin produced
Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________, whereas malignant melanoma arises from ___________.
basale; melanocytes
The ___ is absent from most epidermis.
lucidum
These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens.
dendritic cells
The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles.
sebaceous
Bilirubin causes a skin discoloration called
Jaundice
The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes
hairs to stand on end with no apparent function.
The hair present only prenatally is called ___________, most of which is replaced by ____________ by the time of birth.
lanugo; vellus
The skin does not include

the stratum basale.
the dermis.
the hypodermis.
the papillary layer.
the epidermis.
the hypodermis.
The ___ are a source of sex pheromones.
apocrine
The "ABCD rule" for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion:
asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter
This skin color is most likely to result from anemia.
Pallor
The least common but most deadly type of skin cancer is
malignant melanoma
Mitosis in the __________ accounts for growth of the nail.
nail matrix
Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of
eumelanin and pheomelanin.
The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called
eponychium (cuticle).
What are associated with the sense of touch?
tactile (Merkel) cells
The skin is the largest organ of the body, consisting of ____ % of body weight
15
The outer layer of the stratified squamous epithelium
Epidermis
The deeper connective tissue layer
Dermis
This layer rests on the subcutaneous layer
Hypodermis
This difference in this surface layer of dead skin cells is what makes skin either thick or thin.
Stratum corneum.
In thick skin, its epidermis alone is 0.5 mm thick due to a very thick surface layer of dead cells called the stratum corneum.
The normal thickness of skin is ___-____ mm
1-2mm
Where is thick skin found?
The palms, soles, and corresponding surfaces of the fingers and toes.
What does thin skin possess that thick skin does not?
Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
Characteristics of the epidermis:

Surface consists of _____ cells packed with the tough protein ____.
This layer lacks _____ ____ and therefore depends on its nutrients from the underlying connective tissues.

This layer of skin has sparse ____ _______.
Characteristics of the epidermis:

Surface consists of dead cells packed with the tough protein keratin.
This layer lacks blood vessels and therefore depends on its nutrients from the underlying connective tissues.

This layer of skin has sparse nerve endings.
This is the deepest layer of the epidermis with a single layer of cuboidal or low columnar cells sitting on the basement membrane, its nutrients is recieved from the connective tissue beneath it.

This layer of the skin has 4 types of cells.
Stratum Basale
What are the 4 types of cells in the stratum basale layer of the epidermis?
Stem cells
Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Tactile cells
These cells divide rapidly and give rise to keratinocytes, these cells are found in the stratum basale layer of the epidermis. Mitosis of these cells occurs mainly at night.
Stem cells
Found in the stratum basale. These cells produce a tough fibrous protein. What is the protein that these cells produce?
Keratinocytes; Keratin
These cells produce a protective pigment, shielding the DNA from UV radiation. All people have roughly equal amounts of these cells.

What is the protective pigment that these cells produce?
Melanocytes, the produce Melanin.
These cells are derived from stem cells. These cells migrate toward the skin surface to replace lost epidermal cells.
Keratinocytes
What are the two subtypes of melanin?

What colors are seen with each of these subtypes?
Eumelanin- black/brown
Pheomelanin-reddish/yellow
These cells can sense touch, are found in the epidermis, and are attached to a nerve ending in the dermis
Merkel or tactile cells.
This is the second deepest layer of the epidermis, lying superficial to the stratum basale.

Thickest layer, consisting of several layers of keratinocytes.

Deepest cells of this layer are capable of dividing.

More superficial cells of this layer produce more keratin filaments, causing the cells to flatten.

Contains cells that alert the immune system to foreign invaders.
Stratum Spinosum
Thickest layer of the epidermis, cells of this layer appear flatter toward the superficial part of this layer because of a tough fibrous protein made.
Stratum Spinosum
This layer of the epidermis consists of 3-5 layers of granule and vesicle-containing keratinocytes
Cells are dying
Release lipids from vesicles
Granules lyse
More keratin is created
Forms a protein-lipid epidermal water barrier
Waterproofs the skin
Prevents dehydration
Cells above die because they are cut off from nutrients
Stratum Granulosum
This layer of the epidermis is thin and translucent, found only in thick skin.

The cells of this layer contain no nuclei or other organelles.

The kerotinocytes are filled with an intermediate product in keratin production, called ELEIDIN
Stratum Lucidum
Which layer is found only in thick skin?
Stratum Lucidum
The intermediate product in keratin production that fill the keratinocytes of the Stratum Lucidum is called...
ELEIDIN
Where does the Stratum Lucidum lie?
On top of the Stratum Granulosum layer.
This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells.
This layer is resistant to abrasion, penetration and water loss.

Exfoliation occurs where the surface cells flake off
Stratum Corneum
How many layers are found in the Stratum Corneum layer of the epidermis?
30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells are found in the Stratum Corneum.
What characteristics of the stratum corneum make it a durable surface layer?
Dead
Scaly
Keratinized cells

Make is a durable layer, resistant to abrasion, penetration and water loss
3-5 layers of granule and vesicle-containing keratinocytes
Cells are dying
Release lipids from vesicles
Granules lyse
More keratin is created
Forms a protein-lipid epidermal water barrier
Waterproofs the skin
Prevents dehydration
Cells above die because they are cut off from nutrients
Dust mite feces
From deepest to most superficial layer, list the layers of the epidermis
Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Why is mitosis seldom seen in prepared slides of the skin?
Because mitosis occurs at night.
How long does it take for a keratinocyte to make its way toward the surface?
30-40 days
The thickness of the dermis ranges from ____-____ mm
0.2 to 4 mm
In this layer of the epidermis:

Cells are dying
Lipids are released from the vesicles
Granules lyse and more keratin is created
An epidermal water barrier, consisting of protein-lipids, is formed
Stratum granulosum
What are the functions of the epidermal water barrier?

Where is this barrier formed?
The epidermal water barrier of the stratum granulosum:

retains water
prevents dehydration
and cuts off cells above it from nutrients, cells die.
Why does the most superficial layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, consist of compact layers of dead keratinocytes?
Because of epidermal water barrier cuts off from receiving nutrients
This layer of the skin is a fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of collagen with some elastic/reticular fibers
Dermis
Where are hair follicles and nail roots found?
The dermis.

Also found in the dermis are blood vessels, sweat glands, sebaceous glands and nerve endings.
What are pilorector muscles? What is their action? Where are they found?
Pilorector Muscles are smooth muscles. These muscles contract in response to cold, fear and touch. They are found in the dermis of the skin.
Skeletal muscle in the face are responsible for ______, and are found in the _____ layer of the skin
Expression; dermis
What are dermal paillae
upward extensions of the dermis into the epidermis forming the ridges of the fingerprints
What are the two zones of the dermis?
Papillary layer
Reticular layer
The top layer of the dermis is a loose connective tissue and the bottom layer is dense connective tissue. Specifically what are te types of CT?
Areolar
Dense irregular
What are the characteristics of the Papillary Layer
Loosely organized areolar tissue
Allows for motility of white blood cells
This layer/zone of the dermis is deep, made of dense irregular connective tissue and thick collagen. The tearing of these collagen fibers is responsible for the stretch marks.
This layer also has adipocytes.
Reticular Layer.
What are the two major functions of the hypodermis?
Energy reservoir
Thermal insulation
What are drugs usually introduced into the hypodermis?
Because it is highly vascularized
What is the name for a red pigment of red blood cells?
Hemoglobin
What is the name for the yellow pigment from diet?
Carotene
What is the name for the pigment that is hereditary?
Melanin
What pigment synthesis is stimulated by UV radiation and sunlight?
Melanin
Blueness resulting from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood (cold weather)
Cyanosis
Redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels
Erythema
Yellowing of skin & sclera
Jaundice
What skin coloration is due to excessive amount of billirubin in the blood (liver disease)
Jaundice
Golden-brown color of the skin
Bronzing
A deficiency of the glucocorticoid hormone is otherwise known as
Addison disease
Pale color from lack of blood flow?
Pallor
Genetic lack of melanin
Albinism
What are hemangiomas?
Birthmarks; Discolored skin caused by benign tumors of dermal blood capillaries
What are freckles?
Flat aggregations of melanocytes
How does one get freckles?
Heredity and sun exposure
What do you call elevated melanized skin?
Mole
Define friction ridge
Unique pattern formed during fetal development
Leaves oily fingerprints on touched surfaces
What forms after birth by repeated closing of the hand?
Flexion creases
Flexion line form..
Form in wrists and elbow area
Why do you have friction ridges on your fingertips, but not on your arm or face?
With our hands we grab things
Why is Vitamin D synthesis beneficial in the skin?
Regulates blood Ca+ and K+ levels
What percentage of oxygen is absorbed by diffusion through the skin?
1-2%
What layer of the skin accounts for the nails?
Stratum Corneum- densely packed cells filled with hard keratin
What do spoon-like shaped nails indicate?
iron-deficiency
What does clubbing of the nails indicate?
Hypoxemia
What is the growth rate of nails per week?
1mm
Where are new cells added in nails?
The nail matrix
Where is the growth zone in nails?
The proximal edge of the nail at the nail matrix
Define nail bed
Skin on which the nail plate rests
Define Nail plate
Clear, keratinized portion of the nail
Define root
Proximal end of a nail, underlying the nail fold
What is the eponychium
Also known as the cuticle, this part of the nail is dead epidermis
Nail matrix
Growth zone (mitotic tissue) at the proximal end of the nail; corresponding to the stratum basale of the epidermis
Define Lunule
Base of nail, a small white crescent because it overlies a thick stratum basale that obscures dermal blood vessels from view
What is another name for hair?
Pilus
The stratum corneum of the skin is composed of
soft keratin
What are hair and nails composed of?
Hard keratin
Dead keratinocytes exfoliate from the epidermis at tiny specks called ______
dander
What give color to the skin?
Melanin
Hemoglobin
Carotene
Albinism is a genetic lack of ___________
melanin
Straight hair is _______
Wavy hair is _______
Curly hair is ________
Round
Oval
Flat
T/F the three forms of skin cancer are defined by the types of cells in which they originate
True
Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with ______ _______
dermal papillae
The stratum ________ is absent from most epidermis
lucidum
The skin color that most likely results from anemia
Pallor
Billirubin causes a skin discoloration called
Jaundice
Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by differences in....
quantity of melanin produced
The hair present only prenatally is called ___________, most of which is replaced by ____________ by the time of birth.
lanugo; vellus
The _________ provides the hair with its sole source of nutrition.
dermal papilla
A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in the following order:
anagen, catagen, and telogen
Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an)
hair follicle
Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of
eumelanin and pheomelanin.
The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles.
sebaceous
____________ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal.
Cerumen.
The ___ are a source of sex pheromones.
apocrine glands
Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer?
spinosum and basale
The "ABCD rule" for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to:
asymmetry
border irregularity
color
diameter
The least common but most deadly type of skin cancer is
malignant melanoma
Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________, whereas malignant melanoma arises from ___________.
basale; melanocytes
_____________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue.
Third-degree
Where is the shaft of the hair found?
Above the skin
This is an oblique tube within the skin that contains the root
Follicle
What is the papilla?
Vascular tissue in bulb that provides nutrients
What is due to the amount and type of melanin pigment?
Hair color
Where does the growth of hair occur?
Mitosis in stratum basale of epithelial root sheath
What is the rate hair grows?
1mm every 3 days for 2-4 yrs
What is hirsutism
abnormal hairiness in women or children
masculinizing ovarian tumors
adrenal cortex hypersecretion of testosterone
Describe characteristics of Merocrine glands
Watery perspiration, located everywhere but adundant in palms, soles and forehead, contains apocrine glands
Apocrine glands are mainly found in ....
the groin, anal, axillary, beard.
This type of gland has a thick and milky substance, and the ducts lead to hair follicles
Apocrine
What is dermatitis
Inflammation
What is Tinea?
Ringworm; fungal infection
What is seborrheic dermatitis
recurring patches of scaly white and/or yellow inflammation
what are warts?
a viral infection

HPV
What are cmedos?
Whiteheads
What are open comedos? Why?
Blackheads- dark due to lipid oxidation
What is accutane? What does it do?
Treatment for acne, inhibits sebum production
Vitiligo is a destruction of the melanocytes. What do you think kills these cells?
Antibodies in the body
What is another name for vitiligo?
leucoderma
This is non-contagious, mainly caused by an allergic rxn or genetic component, there is no cure but can be treated with:

emollients- which prevent moisture loss (lotion, creams, ointments) or topical steroids
Eczema
What are emollients?
Lotion, creams or ointments that prevent moisture loss

Used to treat eczema
1st degree burns are in the
epidermis only
2nd degree burns are in the
epidermis and part of the dermis
3rd degree burns are in the
epidermis, dermis and more
3rd degree burns often require..
grafts or fibrosis
Athletes foot is caused by
fungus
Tissue from a different region of the patient is called
autograft
isograft is
a skin graft from identical twin
What is a homograft
A temporary graft option, also called allograft, from an unrelated person
What is a heterograft
A temporary graft option, also called xenograft, from another species
Amnion is a
temporary graft option, from an afterbirth
Artificial skin is a temporary graft option made from
silicone and collagen
All of the following interfere with microbial invasion of the body except

dendritic cells
keratinization
melanization
the acid mantle
sebum
keratinization
What glands produce the acid mantle?
merocrine glands
What alerts the immune system to pathogens?
melanocytes
______ is sweating without noticeable wetness of the skin
insensible perspiration
The process of removing burned skin from a patient is called ______
debridement
Projections of the dermis toward the epidermis that nourish the hair by blood vessels in a connective tissue are called
dermal papillae
Holocrine glands that secrete into a hair follicle are called
sebaceous glands
Hair grows only during this phase
anagen
A ______ burn destroys the entire dermis
3rd degree