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47 Cards in this Set

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Hair: Composition
Dead, keratinized epidermalk cells
Hair: Function
Minor Protective Functions
Ex: Eyebrows and eyelashes: Collect foreign particles
Head: Absorbs force/sunlight/dec heat loss
Nasal Passage: Filters foreign particles
Hair Anatomy:
Column Types?
3
Shaft
Root
Bulb
Hair: Shaft
Superficial; projects from skin
Hair: Root: Structure
Deep to surface, penetrates dermis; surrounded by follicles; external; Internal root sheath
Hair: Root: External Root Sheath
Composed of dermal tissue

Supplies blood vessels to epidermal portion and reinforces
Hair: Root: Internal Root Sheath
Composed epithelial tissure

Forms a tubular sheath and forms hair
Bulb
Enlarged base at end of root; Onion shaped at end of follicle
Layers of Hair: Superficial to Deep
Connective tissue; External Root Sheath; Internal Root Sheath; Cuticle; Cortex; Medulla
Arrector Pili
Small band of smooth muscle cells
Connect each side of hair follicle to dermal tissue
Contraction causes hair to "stand"
Hair: Concentric Layers of Root
Medulla | Cortex | Cuticle
Medulla
Innermost layer of Hair
Contains pigments granules
Cortex
Middle part of hair
Pigment granules [in dark hair]
Cuticle
Outer Layer of hair
Single layer of heavily keratinized cells
Arranged like shingles
Skin Appendages: General Function
Cutaneous glands, hair, follicles and nails; All play unique roles maintaining body's homeostasis
Exocrine Glands
Located in Dermis Layer

Sebaceous| Sudiferous|Ceruminous
Sudiferous
Sweat Glands:
Eccrine and Apocrine
Eccrine
More numerous sweat glands; mixture of water, salt and metabolic wastes; regulates heat (98.6)
Apocrine
Confined to axillary and genital areas;
contains fatty acids and proteins, as well as secretions from eccrine
Begin Functioning at puberty
increased activity during emotional stress
minimal role in thermoregulation
Sebaceous Glands
Secrete Sebum: mix of oil and fragmented skin (keeps skin soft/hydrated)
Acne: sebaceous glands blocked by sebum. blackhead (whitehead dries/darkens)
Nail
Scalelike modification of epidermis
Tightly packed keratinized cells
Nail: Components
Nail Body; Nail Root; Lunula; Cuticle
Nail Body
visible portion
Free edge: extends past digit
Nail Root
Embedded in skin
Lunula
whitish; semilunar area at proximal end
Cuticle
epidermal attachment surrounding nail wall
Nail Bed
Stratum Spinosum layer that nail rests on
Nail Matrix
Underlies the nail bed
Where Cell division and growth occurs
Pinkish nail color comes from rish blood supply to underlying dermis
Burns
Tissue damage/Cell death
Burns: Causes
Intense heat
Electricity
UV radiation
Chemicals
Burns: Effects
Accelerated/Impaired Metabolism
Cardiovascular System Failure
Most Serious Threat to skin
Circulatory shock (dec blood flow->dec BP)
Burns: Classification
First-Third Degree
Burns: First Degree
Damage: Only Epidermis
Severity: Mild
Symptoms: Temp discomfort, swollen &red ~2-3days, easily heals
Burns: Second Degree
Damage: Epidermis/possibly upper dermis
Severity: Moderate
Symptoms: Skin red/painful. Blistering; can have no scar if taken care of
Burns: Third Degree
Damage: Entire thickness of skin
Severity: Extreme
Symptoms: Appears blackened; not terribly painful at first; regeneration not possible-> skin graft
Thickness Burns
Partial thickness= first/second degree

Full Thickness= Third Degree
Burns considered critical if...
2nd degree over 25% body
3rd degree over 10% of body
3rd degree over hands/feet/face [facial dangerous b/c damage to resp passgeways=suffocation]
Skin Cancer: Types
Most common type of cancer

Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Malignant Melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Cause=Inc sun exposure
Most common type(78%) (and on face)
Typically do not metastatize
Stratum Basale cells, germinativum, cannot form keratin-> no good boundary b/c epidermis and dermis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
2nd most common (20%)
Affects cells of Stratum Basale
Cause=Chronic sun exposure, poorly treated burns, long standing sores, radiation exposure
Lesions scaly, reddened papule
Metastatize slowly (can invade neighboring tissue)
Malignant Melanoma
Least common (2%)
Most dangerous
Malignant tumor originating in melanocytes (metastatize rapidly to surround blood &lymph)
Initially appear brwon/black patches
ABCD Rule for recognizing melanomas
Asymmetry; Border Irregularity; Color (different colored areas); Diameter
Dermis Blood Supply
Abundantly supplied with blood vessels--> regulate body temperature
Restriction of blood supply to skin-> cell death and severe skin ulcers
Decubitus Ulcers
Occurs in bedridden patients, due to lack of movement
Cyanosis
Blue skin from lack of oxygen (Hg poorly oxygenated)
Both blood and skin appear blue
Erythema
Red Skin
Inc BF to skin- may indicate embarrasment/faver/hypertension/inflammation/allergy
Contusions
Hematoma or Bruise

Sites where blood escaped from circulatory sys and clotted in tissue spaces
Tendency indicates Vit C deficiency or blood clotting disorder