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32 Cards in this Set

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Which cells secrete insulin?
beta cells in the pancreas
Insulin is useful in the treatment of type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus?
both
sulfonylureas are useful in the treatment type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus?
type 2 diabetes mellitus only
Which insulin is taken right before meals because it has a rapid onset of action (15 min), peak effect (about 1 hour) and short duration of action (3-5 hr)? regular humulin R, NPH humulin N, insulin lispro, or insulin glargine
insulin lispro
Which insulin is taken to cover basal insulin requirements because it has a long duration of action (24 hours) and is essentially peakless? regular humulin R, NPH humulin N, insulin lispro, or insulin glargine
insulin glargine
How is NPH humulin N mainly used? to cover basal insulin requirements or taken before meals
to cover basal insulin requirements
how is regular humulin R mainly used? ? to cover basal insulin requirements or taken before meals
taken just before meals
Which form of insulin is used in an insulin pump? regular humulin R, NPH humulin N, insulin lispro, or insulin glargine
insulin lispro
What are some of the main symptoms of hypoglycemia?
palpitations, tremor, sweating, confusion, drowsiness
What effect will glucagon have on blood glucose levels in a diabetic?
Raise blood glucose
What is the MOA of action of glipizide in treating a type 2 diabetic?
Binds to and shuts the ATP-sensitive K channel on beta cells to depolarize the cells, increasing intracellular Ca which causes insulin secretion
Which drugs ‘mimic’ glucose stimulated insulin release from the beta cells? Acarbose Glyburide Metformin Pioglitazone Repaglinide
glyburide and repaglinide
Which drugs can cause hypoglcyemia? Acarbose, Glyburide, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Repaglinide
Glyburide and Repaglinide
Which drugs can cause weight gain? Acarbose, Glyburide, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Repaglinide, Exenatide, Sitagliptin, Pramlintide
Glyburide, Pioglitazone, Repaglinide
What are the main contributing factors in pioglitazone induced weight gain?
fluid retention and edema, and increased adipocyte differentiation (small adipocyts to large adipocytes)
Which of the following drugs should be taken with meals? Acarbose, Glyburide, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Repaglinide
Acarbose, Metformin, Repaglinide
What is the MOA of exenatide?
GLP-1 analogue that increases glucose stimulated insulin release, decreases glucagon release, increases satiety, and delays gastric empyting
What is the MOA of metformin in treating a type 2 diabetic
decreases glucose release from the liver and increases insulin induced glucose uptake (hence decrease insulin resistance (so insulin works better))
Which oral hypoglycemic drug can cause lactic acidosis?
metformin
Which oral hypoglycemic drug can cause cholestatic jaundice?
sulfonylureas
Which oral hypoglycemic drug can cause SIADH?
Sulfonylureas
What is the MOA of pioglitazone in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus?
activates PPAR gamma and increases insulin sensitivity (increase glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissue and reduce liver gluconeogenesis)
What is the MOA of acarbose in the treatment of type 2 diabetes?
inhibits digestion of disaccharides to glucose which will delay or impair glucose absorption
which of the oral hypoglycemic drugs causes the most GI side effects (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea)?
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Why would you not want to use acarbose perioperatively?
Because the patient is not eating and you should only take acarbose before you eat.
Which oral hypoglycemic agent can cause an increase in fracture risk?
Pioglitazone, rosiglitazone
Which drug has resticted used because of a potential increased risk of MI
rosiglitazone
what is the MOA of sitagliptin
inhibits DPP-IV to increase half life of endogenous GLP-1
What can cause severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis and Steven-Johnson syndrome? exenatide, sitagliptin or pramlintide
sitagliptin
What is the MOA of pramlintide
works like amylin to increase satiety, reduce gastric emptying and inhibit glucagon release
Which oral diabetes drug is contraindicated in NYHA Class III and IV heart failure?
metformin
Which oral diabetes drug is contraindicated in hypoxic situations?
metformin