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13 Cards in this Set

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Pitot Static System
3 Intstruments:
1. Airspeed Indicator
2. Altimeter
3. Vertical Speed Indicator
Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
- Displays Knots Of Indicated Airspeed (KIAS)
- Read Directly Off The Guage
- Only Instrument That Uses The Pitot Tube

Parts:
- Pitot Inlet
- Static Vent
- Expandable Vertical Diaphram

Operation:
1. Increase In Speed
- More Air Is Forced Into The Pitot Tube
- Diaphram Expands
- Reading On Face Increases
2. Decrease In Speed
- Less Air Forced Into The Pitot Tube
- Static Pressure Collapses The Vertical Diaphram
- Reading On The Face Decreases

Note:
KIAS
- Knots Indicated Airspeed
- Directly Off The Face Of The Dial

CAS
- IAS Corrected For Instrument & Position Error

TAS
- CAS Corrected For Temperature & Pressure Alititude
- Speed Helicopter Is Actually Traveling Threw The Air

GS
- TAS Corrected For Wind Velocity & Direction
- Speed Helicopter Is Actually Traveling Over The Ground
Blocked Pitot Tube (ASI)
- Effects Only The AS Indicator
- Usually Due To Ice

AS Readings With Blocked Pitot Tube:
- Descending Below Point Of Blockage
-> ASI Will Read Lower
-> Vise/Versa

Static System Only Now:
1. Descent
- More Dense Air
- Contracts Diaphram
- AS Goes Down
2. Ascent
- Less Dense Air
- Expand Diaphram
- AS Goes Up

Note: Blocked Pitot - Static Only
- ASI Acts Like An Altimeter
Blocked Static Line (ASI)
AS Readings With Blocked Static Line:
- Descending Below Point Of Blockage
-> ASI Will Read Higher
-> Vise/Versa

IE:
Blockage @ 2000'
1. Above 2000'
- Less Dense Air In Pitot
- Not Enough Air To Expand Diaphram
- ASI Will Read Lower
Recovery:
Blocked Pitot (ASI)
- Turn On Pitot Heat
-> All IFR Ships Are Required To Have Pitot Heat
-> **General Rule** Turn On Pitot Heat Right Before Entering Icing Conditions (Clouds Or Visible Moisture)
Recovery:
Blocked Static (ASI)
- Goto Secondary Static Source
-> Normally All IFR Ships Have 2 Static Sources
- If No Secondary Source
-> Break Glass On VSI
-> VSI Will Read In Reverse
-> Cabin Pressure Maybe Higher Than Outside

Note:
Always Use Control & Performance Method

Note:
GS On The GPS CAN Be Used For Approaches
-
Prevention:
Blocked Pitot/Static (ASI)
1. Preflight
- Check That Pitot/Static Lines Are Clear
- Make Sure ASI Reads Zero
- Make Sure Pitot Heat Is Operational
-> Do Not Touch
-> Spike On Amp Meter When Turned On
Altimeter (ALT)
- Altitude Indicator
- Measures Height Above Given Pressure Level

Parts:
- Static Vent
- Aneriod Horizontal Waffers
-> Set Pressure Inside Waffers (29.92?)

Operation:
1. Climb
- Less Dense Air In Case Allows Waffers To Expand
- Reading On The Face Increases
2. Descent
- Vise/Versa
Kolsman Window
- Corrects For Different Temperature & Pressure Values On Any Given Day & Given Area
- Allows Us To Calculate Height Above Sea Level
Density Error (ALT)
- Increase In Pressure = An Increase In Temperature
-> Vise/Versa
- Increase In Temperature = An Increase In Pressure
-> Vise/Versa

Note:
High To Low - Look Out Below
- High Pressure To Low Pressure = A Lower Altitude You Set Your Altimeter
-> Especially Prior To Approach

Note:
- ATC Takes Pressure Level For That Day
- Then Adds Field Elevation
- Which Is Adjusted In The Kolsman Window

Note:
- For Extreme Temperature Changes
-> Refer To AIM 7-2
Blocked Static Line (ALT)
- Altimeter Will Freeze @ The Altitude Where Blockage Occured
Recovery:
Blocked Static (ALT)
- Goto Secondary Static Source
-> Normally All IFR Ships Have 2 Static Sources
- If No Secondary Source
-> Break Glass On VSI
-> VSI Will Read In Reverse
-> Cabin Pressure Maybe Higher Than Outside
- If All Else Fails
-> GPS Gives Pressure Altitude Information
-> Transponder Gives Pressure Altitude Information
Prevention:
Blocked Static (ALT)
1. Preflight
- 91.411
-> States That Altimeter Must Be Checked Every 24 Calender Months For IFR Flight
- Static Line Is Clear
- Set Altimeter Setting In Kolsman Window
-> Make Sure Altimeter Setting Is Within 75' Of Your Location On Airport
IE:
- Scottsdale Field Elevation Is 1510'
- 30.02 Altimeter Setting That Day
- Altimeter Should Read Within 75' Of 1510'