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8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A. Cognitive Connections
* This section provides clear expectations for academic writing and assessment documents needed to evaluate student essays. (i.e. standards matrix, rubric, student rubric, sample essay, results chart, literature and writing descriptions.) The theoretical support spans from transformative pedagogy and Walqui's 4th priority: Teaching and Learning focus on substantive ideas that are organized cyclically.
B. Affirming Identity
^ This section strengthens cognitive skills by encouraging students to develop their independent voices, to share their personal perspectives. Highlighted by multicultural educators, students need to find a voice and engage in meaningful connections. Walqui's 5th priority stresses the need that new ideas and tasks be contextualized . Like the tile of Sonia Neito's book Affirming Diversity, affirming identity is the core of WRITE'S instructional sequence. Nieto says that it [Affirming Diversity] implies that cultural, linguistic, and other differences can and should be accepted, respected, and used as a basis for learning and teaching.
C. Living Culture
# By encouraging students to view their parents, family, and neighbors as valuable sources of knowledge, students analyze issues in their communities and make connections to the larger global society. Alma Flor Ada's work with Mexican American parents underlines the impact that involvement in the school process has on both students and parents. Ada stresses that classroom culture should consist of a community of learners. The more involved the parents are, the greater the educational impact. Walqui's 1st priority emphasizes that community connections build cultural literacy and multicultural competences: The culture of the classroom fosters the development of a community of learners, and all students are part of that community.
E. Academic Language Learning
> This writing approach is backed by Cummin's research on immigrant students in which he differentiates two types of language proficiency skills: social interactive language skills (which are sufficient to engage in social communication) and academic language skills (needed for successful participation in a classroom context). The activities in this section reflect a systematic task analysis or series of "mini-lessons" that develop the language skills needed to support the writing style of each genre. The activities incorporated into the WRITE teacher training reflect a systematic task analysis of ELA skills related to academic learning. This systematic task analysis offers English learners solid knowledge of academic language, vocabulary, and literacy skills that conform to the ELA standards. Therefore, the WRITE training practices help overcome the academic lag that English learners experience, enabling them to mainstream more quickly. This section focuses on Walqui's 2nd priority: Good teaching involves conceptual and academic development.
D. Comprehending the Text
+ Activities in this section focus on learning strategies that enable students to develop fluency in decoding the deep structure sytems of language. (i.e. word/meaning associations, schema and critical comprehension). Included are strategies incorproated from Reading Recovery, for example, and Put Reading First, including multiple readings of a level appropriate text. This section focuses on interacting with the text and making sense of language in context. Walqui's 5th priorty emphasized this need that new ideas and tasks [be] contextualized.
F. Responding to the Text
= Activities in this section encourage the analysis of structural features in the text and provide a venue for students to respond to the text critically and creatively. Also, direct instruction of ELA standards through vocabulary and word-learning includes the use of: information about word parts, context to determine word meaning, and common prefixes, suffixes, base and root words to understand word meaning. Research-based text comprehension instructon includes use of graphic semantic organizers, generating and answering questions about text, identification of main themes and central ideas, and teaching for comprehension. In order for students to contextualize language, Walqui stresses the folloing in her 9th priority: Students need to be given multiple opportunities to extend their understandings and apply their knowledge.
G. Pre-Writing, Rough Draft, Revision
< Pre-writing activities provide specific strategies that focus on the organization and structure of the writing style. In his writings on Critical Pedagogy, Brazilian educator Paulo Freire states that schools for the masses and low-literacy students have placed far more attention on reading, a more passive, receptive and consumer activity, than on writing, a more active, productive and leadership activity. Promoting the writing process facilitates reading and the development of student leadership.
H. Editing, Final Draft, Publishing
& By focusing on ELD proficiency levels, teachers can more effectively guide English learners during the editing and revising stages. Each unit provides ideas for the celebration, sharing and publishing of student work. Waluqi contends that students need guidance, as well as recognition for their work. She also stresses the need for collaborative learning opportunities in her 8th priority: Complex and flexible forms of collaboration maximize learners' opportunities to interact while making sense of language and content.