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52 Cards in this Set

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Closing-in
Phenomenon where an individual seems pulled toward stimulus. Sometimes called crowding or stimulus bound
Cogwheel rigidity
Muscle rigidity of associated with Parkinsonism. A ratchet-like, cogwheel, resistance to joint movement caused by hypertonia and tremor
Colloid Cyst
A benign neoplasm composed of epithelial cells and filled with the gelatinous substance. Commonly arise from the roof of the third ventricle. Maybe benign until adulthood when assist blocks thus cerebral aqueduct and causes obstructive hydrocephalus.
Color Amnesia
Loss of knowledge about color in the context of normal color vision or color perception. Those with this disorder forget how objects with intrinsic color should be colored (e.g., Corn is yellow).
Color Anomia
Inability to name colors. Often occurs with Alexia without agraphia. Results from lesion in lingual gyrus of occipital lobe
Coma Stimulation
A systematic repetitious sensory stimulation given to a comatose or vegetative patient to improve arousal level.
Combined System Disease
The disorder associated with the their pernicious anemia or a vitamin B12 deficiency without anemia. Occurs in subacute myelopathy dementia, posterior spinal column dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy.
Commissure
White matter fiber tract that connects to cerebral hemispheres and transfers information from one to the other. But corpus callosum and anterior commissure are two primary ones
Commissurotomy
Surgical procedure to separate hemispheres and decrease severity of generalized tonic-clonic seizures.Usually a complete collostomy is not done, just an anterior one due to the risk of causing disconnection syndromes.
Communicating Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus were there is no obstruction in the ventricular system. Results from diseases in the subarachnoid space such as meningitis that clog CSF pathways at the base of the brain entrap CSF in the fourth ventricle.
Complex Partial Seizure
Partial seizure associated with impaired consciousness/responsiveness. This is unlike simple partial seizures where consciousness is not impaired. Most common focis is medial temporal lobe, then frontal lobe
CT scan
Imaging technique using ionizing radiation that permits depiction of brain and other structures. Reveals ventricular enlargement, differentiates gray from white matter, reveals basal ganglia certain parencymal changes. Spatial resolution of CT superior to an MRI, but contrast resolution of MRI is superior to that of a CT. superior in detecting blood in the brain.
Conduction Aphasia
Fluent aphasia with impaired repetition had relatively preserved language comprehension. Notable anemic paraphasias and word finding difficulty. Reading aloud is difficult due to significant paraphasic errors even though there is relatively good comprehension. Associated with lesions of the posterior Peary sylvian language area.
Confabulation
Often seen in amnestic syndrome. Involves information that may be implausible that an individual makes up.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Multivariate technique for studying dimensionality of a set of measures. Allows the hypothesis testing approach to study psychometric properties of measures
Confrontation naming
Naming task in which an object is presented visually. This is different than responsive naming in which the object is described.
Confusional State
Involves alterations in level of arousal, disturbance of attention, and impairment of logical stream of thought. Associated with disturbance in the sleep wake cycle, disorientation to time and place, and rambling or incoherent speech. Onset is generally rapid in which the condition is worse at night (sundowning).
Construct Validity
The degree to which scores support inferences about the variable being study. You want to have high correlations with tasks measuring similar constructs and low correlations with tests measuring different constructs
Constructional Apraxia
The inability to copy or assemble items in two or three dimensional space. This is a visual-constructional impairment.
Content Validity
The adequacy with which a specific domain of content is sampled
Contracture
A permanent tightening of muscle, tendons, ligaments that prevents normal movement and may result in a permanent deformity and associated body part.
Contracoup contusion
Cerebral contusion appearing opposite to the point of impact. Following a blow to the head.
Contusion in the brain
A bruise typically on the brain's surface with out cerebral hemorrhage.
Conversion Disorder
There are apparent neurological symptoms present although there is no neurological pathology. These are disorders that are psychogenic in origin although they are not intentionally produced
Convulsion
Generalized involuntary muscle contraction associated with tonic chronic seizures.
Coprolalia
Of VocalTec consisting of either Abel Garrity or its initial phoneme.
Corpus Striatum
A portion of the basal ganglia anterior and lateral to the thalamus. It's composed of gray and white matter. The gray matter is arranged in two principal structures: the caudate and lentiform nuclei. I lentiform nuclei is composed of the putamen and globus pallidus
Cerebral cortex and its layers
Archicortex: the dentate gyrus and hippocampus this is the oldest region of the cerebral cortex.

Neocortex: major portion consisting of six layers. Named "Neo" since it is phylogenetically most recent in development

Paleocortex: three to five layers; The subiculum, piriform cortex, and cingulate gyrus
Cortical Dementia
Dimensio with a loss of higher cortical function where you see aphasia, apraxia, or agnosia. This is in contrast to subcortical dementia which is characterized by slowed mental processing.
Cortical Dysplasia
And disorder of cortical neurons associated with mental retardation and epilepsy
Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration
Progressive disease of the basal ganglia. Apraxia, rigidity, dystonia and postural abnormalities are seen. Cognitive deterioration his moderate individuals have a dysexecutive syndrome
Corticobulbar
Motor tracks from primary motor cortex to cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem
Corticofugal
Proceeding, conducting, or moving away from the cortex
Corticopetal
Proceeding, conducting, or moving toward the cortex
Corticospinal
Motor tracks from primary motor cortex to spinal cord nuclei in the ventral horns
Coup Contusion
Brain contusion beneath the area of impact in a head injury. This is in contrast to a Contracoup contusion
Cranial Nerves
12 paired nerves arising from the brainstem that innervate muscles of the head and receive sensory information
Craniopharyngioma
The tumor arising from cells derived from the pituitary stalk that often increases intracranial pressure also called a suprasellar cyst
Craniosynostosis
A condition where the cranial sutures fuse prematurely at birth and result in a deformity of school growth. Untreated may result in a developmental delay with various kinds of learning disabilities
Craniotomy
Surgical opening of this goal for access to the brain.
Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease
Subacute cerebral degeneration characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. myoclonus, ataxia, posture and movement arrangement, visual disturbances and seizures are frequently seen. Usually fatal within six months. Transmitted by prions which are similar to when viruses and occur in mad cow disease.. Spongiform encephalopathy occurs.
Critical Flicker Fusion
When rapidly flashing visual stimulus appears to be a steady light. This was part of the original Halstead battery.
Crowding
Decline in visual-spatial abilities associated with a shift in language dominance to the right cerebral hemisphere following left hemisphere damage in early life. Often other abilities are affected, such as visual-spatial abilities are crowded out to some extent.
Crystallized Intelligence
Intelligence, or generalized intelligence (g) that is acquired through education, experience and socialization. Intellectual skills have been divided into crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) dimensions. Gc heavily based upon experience, is age dependent and increases throughout the life span.
Cued Recall
Memory recall where information about items to be recalled is provided. Common cues include semantic category or initial phoneme of the word.
Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
A listing of descriptive terms associated with digit codes and used to report medical services and procedures; published by the AMA.
Cutaneous sense
The sense of pressure, pain, cold, warmth, and touch. Cutaneous receptors lie beneath the skin or in mucous membranes
CVA
Cerebrovascular accident
CXR
A chest x-ray
Cyanosis
A dark slate blue color of the mucous membranes, lips, nail beds, and skin due to deficient blood oxygenation
Cysticercosis
Larval stage of infection with pork tapeworm. Occurs for meeting. Fresh vegetables or legumes contaminated by feces. Also occurs from eating undercooked pork. Often seen in Third World countries and in southern border regions of the United States. Can cause generalized tonic conic seizures and increased intracranial pressure
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes virus that is a common cause of intrauterine infection. Frequently associated with congenital malformations and growth retardation sometimes seen in Guillan Barre or AIDS