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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
 Levels of Biological Organization
Atoms, Molecules, DNA Molecules, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms
Atoms
Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.  Surrounded by electrons.
 Molecules
Union of two or more atoms of the same elementThe smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compoundExample:  O2
 Cells
Structional and functional unit of an organism.The smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life.
 Tissues
Group of similar cells that perform a common function.
Organs
Combination of two or more different tissues performing a common function.
Organ Systems
Group of related organs working together.
Organism
Individual living thing. 
 Biology
Scientific study of life.
Motile
Capable of moving.In humans, the movement of organs like the stomach.
Order of theClassification of Living Things
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Domains
Archea, Bacteria, Eukarya
Domain
Largest of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists to group species.
Kingdoms within Domain Eukarya
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
 Phylum" is between which classification strata?"
Kingdom and Class.  
How many classification strata is Class" away from "Domain"?"
Two:Domain, Phylum, Class
In what position is Order" from the top of the Classification of Living Things?"
Five.Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order
Which classification strata come AFTER Family"?"
Species, Genus, Family
Genus
Species that share very similar characteristics.
Species
Group of similarly constructed organisms.Capable of interbreeding.Organisms that share a common gene pool.
Classification of Humans:Domain Eukarya
Cells with nuclei.
Classification of Humans:Kingdom Animala
Multicellular, motile, ingestion of food.
Classification of Humans:Phylum Chordata
Dosal supporting rod and nerve cord.
Classification of Humans:Class Mammalia
Hair, mammary glands.
Classification of Humans:Order Primates
Adapted to climb trees.
Classification of Humans:Family Hominidae
Adapted to walk erect.
Classification of Humans:Genus Homo
Large brain, tool use.
Classification of Humans:Species Homo sapiens
Body proportions of modern humans.
Taxonomy
Assignment of binomial names to each species.
Taxonomy Formatting
Always consists of Genus, then SpeciesBoth in italics.Only Genus is capitalizedGenus can be shortened to first inital when paired with species.
Characteristics of Life (seven)
Living things are organizedLiving things acquire materials and energyLiving things reproduceLiving things respond to stimuliLiving things are homeostaticLiving things grow and developLiving things have the capacity to adapt
Steps of the Scientific Method
Observation > Hypothesis > Experiment/Observations > Conclusion>Hypothesis>Scientific Theory
Observations
Data are collected before a conclusion is drawn.
Hypothesis
Guess formulated after making observations.
Experimental Design
A test that controls the conditions under which experimental observations are made.
Experimental Variable
A treatment that is varied in an experiment to test a hypothesis.
Response Variable
Result or change that occurs due to the exerimental variable.
Inductive Reasoning
Using specific observations and the process of logic and reasoning to arrive at a hypothesis.
Deductive Reasoning
Process of logic and reasoning using if...then" statements."
Data should be...
Data should be observable and objective.Data should not be subjective or based on opinion.
How is mathematical data often presented?
Statistics are often presented in graphs or tables.
Conclusion
Statement made following an experiment as to whether the results support the hypothesis.
Populations
All the members of a single species that occur in a particular area.
Community
Populations interact with each other within a community.
Ecosystem
Populations interact together to form a community, which interacts with the environment to form an ecosystem.
Characteristics of Ecosystems
Chemical cyclingEnergy flow
Domain Archea(three points)
Unicellular organisms No membrane-bounded nucleusReproduce asexually
Domain Eukarya(3 points)
Uni- to multicellular organismsMembrane bounded nucleusSexual reproduction is common
Autotrophic
An organism that can capture energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients.
Heterotrophic
Organism that cannot synthesize organic molecules.  Must take in organic nutrients (food).
Prokaryote
Lacking a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles.  Cell type in domains Bacteria and Archea.