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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
shaft of penis
corpus spongiosum(w/ urethra)
corpora cavernosa
secretions of glans
smegma
loose wrinkled pouch w/ 2 compartments
scrotum
ovoid rubbery structures
left usually lower than right
testes
serous membrane enclosing a potential cavity
tunica vaginalis
cordlike struct begins at tail of epididymis
vas deferens
vas with vessels, nerves, and mx fibers
spermatic cord
tunnel for vas deferens to pass
inguinal canal
triangular slitlike struc lat to pubic tubercle
external inguinal ring
potential route for hernia below inguinal lig
femoral canal
lack of libido may arise from psychogenic causes such as:
depression
endocrine dysfx
medications
erectile dysfx from:
*psychogenic causes
*dec testosterone
*dec blood flow in hypogastric arterial sys
*impaired neural innervation
causes of reduced or absent ejaculation in middle -older men
meds
surgery
neurologic deficits
lack of androgen
lack of orgasm w/ ejaculation is usually ________
psychogenic
t/f premature ejac. is common especially in young men
true
assoc w/ yellow discharge:

clear or white:
gonococcal

non-gonococcal
infections from oral-penile transmission:
gonorrhea,
clamdia,
syphilis,
herpes
most common cancer for men 15-35
testicular cr.
tight prepuce that can't be retracted over glans:

once retracted can't be returned:
phimosis

paraphimosis
inflammation of the glans:

same + prepuce:
balanitis

balanoposthitis
pubic or genital excoriations suggest:
lice(crabs) or scabies
congenital, ventral displacement of the meatus on the penis
hypospadias
poorly dev. scrotum on one or both sides suggests:
cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)
common scrotal swelling include:

+ tender and pain:
indirect inguinal hernias
hydroceles
scrotal edema

*acute epididymitis
*acute orchitis
*torsion of spermatic cord
*strangulated inguinal hernia
multiple tortuous veins usually on left side suggest
varicocele
cystic structure in spermatic cord suggests; transilluminate
hydrocele
t/f structures containing blood or tissue tranilluminate
false
tumors or most hernias do NOT
hernias return to abdomen when supine. If not but you can get fingers above mass in scrotum- suspect:
hydrocele
bowel sounds may be heard in testes over a ________
hernia
a hernia is __________ when its contents can't return to abdominal cav.;_________ when blood supply is compromised + tender, n/v
incarcerated

strangulated
risk factors for testicular cr.:
*cryptorchidism
*hx of cr in
contralateral testicle
*mumps orchitis
*inguinal hernia
*hydrocele in childhood
most common type of hernia
indirect(comes down canal)
________forms the bulb of the penis, ending in the cone shaped _________ with its expanded base, or _______
corpus spongiosum

glans

corona
a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
prostate
a rounded eminence on the upper margin of each pubis near the pubic symphysis
pubic tubercle
internal opening of the inguinal canal
internal inguinal ring
inspect penis skin for:
Veneral warts
Genital Herpes
Chancre
Ca of the penis (noncircumcised as child)
Peyronie’s Disease
Hypospadias
hair covered fat pad covering symphysis pubis
mons pubis
rounded folds of adipose tissue
labia majora
thinner pinkish red folds extending anteriorly to form prepuce and clitoris
labia minora
boat shaped fossa

posterior portion _________ hidden in virgins by ________
vestibule

introitus

hymen
tissue b/t introitus and anus

opens into vestibule b/t clitoris and vagina:
perineum

urethral meatus
glands post. on either side of urethral meatus

glands on either side vagina:
paraurethral (Skene's) glands

bartholin's glands
tube b/t urethra and rectum

upper portion terminates in:
vagina

fornix
flattened fibromx struc. shaped like a pear:

2 parts joined by:
uterus

body(corpus) and cervix joined by isthmus
convex upper portion of uterus body:

lower portion:
fundus

cervix
vaginal surface of cervix

opening of endocervical canal:
ectocervix

external os
boundary b/t epithelium in cervix:

columnar epi encircling the os:
squamocolumnar junction

ectropion
fanlike tip of uterrus toward ovary:
fallopian tube
ovaries, tubes, and supporting tissues
adnexa
production of ova
secrete hormones
functions of ovaries
tanner scale for females depends on:
1. growth of pubic hair
2. development of breasts
ovarian fxn diminishes at:

menstral pds cease b/t:
40's

45-52
postmenopausal bleeding raises question of:
endometrial cancer
secondary amenorrhea causes:
low body weight from:
1. malnutrition and anorexia
2. stress
3. chronic illness
4. hypothalmic-pituitary- ovarian dysfxn
failure to initiate periods

cessation after they estab.
primary amenorrhea

secondary amenorrhea
pain with menstruation:

abnormally frequent periods:

inc. amount or duration flow:
dysmenorrhea

menorrhagia

metrorrhagia
postcoital bleeding suggests______ or in an older woman _________
cervical dz.(polyps, cancer)

atrophic vaginitis
tenderness
tingling
increased breast size
common early symptoms of pregnancy
amenorrhea followed by heavy bleeding suggests:
*threatened abortion
*dysfunctional uterine bleeding related to lack of ovulation
most common vulvovaginal symptoms:
vaginal discharge, local itching
discomfort during sex:

involuntary spasm of mx surrouding vagina making sex painful or impossible:
dyspareunia

vaginismus
at 18 or at onset of sexual activity
start screening for cervical cr
methods of birth control:
natural
barrier
implantable
pharmacologic
surgery
mood shifts
changes in self-concept
hot flashes
accel bone loss
inc LDL-C
dysuria
dyspareunia
changes of menopause
types of specula for pap smear:
Pedersen
Graves
best for parous women with vaginal prolapse
graves specula
prolapse of the urethral mucosa found almost exclusively in the post menopausal woman
urethral caruncle
small, firm, round nodules in labia; yellowish color:

Firm, painless ulcer:
epidermoid cyst

syphilitic chancre
yellow discharge suggests mucopurulent cervicitis caused by:
chlamydia trachomatis
neisseria gonorrhoeae
herpes simplex
uterine enlargement suggests:
pregnancy or tumors
nodules of the uterine surface suggest
myomas
_____years after menopause, the ovaries atrophy and are no longer palpable
3-5 years
most common hernia in female groin:

_____ ranks next in frequency:
indirect inguinal hernia

femoral hernia
urethritis may arise from infection with:
clamydia trachomatis or neisserria gonorrhoeae
rapidly growing excrescences that are moist and malodorous. result from infx by hpv
vereal wart
(condyloma acuminatum)
cluster of small vesicles, followed by shallow, painful, noninfurated ulcers on red bases
genital herpes
oval or round,dark red, painless erosion or ulcer w/ indurated base; when secondarily infx may be pain
syphilitic chancre
urethral meatus to inf surface of penis.
hypospadias
palpable nontender hard plaques just beneath skin along dorsum of penis; crooked painful erections
peyronie's dz
infurated nodule or ulcer that is usually nontender. almost all are not circumcised in childhood
cr. of the penis
comes through inguinal ring, so fingers can't get above it in scrotum
scrotal hernia
scrotal edema my accompany generalized edema of:
CHF
nephrotic syndrome
testis acutely inflamed, painful, tender, and swollen; diff to dist. from the epididymis; seen in mumps and other viral infx; usually unilat.
acute orchitis
small firm testes in:

small soft testes seen in:
klinefelter's syndrome

cirrhosis, mytonic dystrophy, use of estrogens, hypopituitarism; may follow orchitis
acute epididymitis dx is supported:
UTI or prostatitis
painless movable mass above testis suggests; both transilluminate
spermatocele or epididymal cyst
firm enlargement of epididymis with beading of vas deferens
TB epididymitis
small firm round cystic nodules in the labia
epidermoid cyst
warty lesions on the labia w/in vestibule suggest:
condylomata acuminata
(due to hpv)
shallow small painful ulers on red bases suggest
genital herpes
slightly raised, flat, round or oval papules coveed by gray exudate suggest:
condylomata lata (these are contagious)
ulcerated or raised vulvar lesion in elderly woman may indicate:
vulvar cr.
buldge of ant vaginal wall and bladder

+ urethra:
cystocele

cystourethrocele
herniation of the rectum into post wall of vagina
rectocele
small, red, benign tumor visible at post part of urethral meatus chiefly in postmenopausal women with no symptoms
urethral caruncle
forms swollen red ring around the urethral meatus before menarche or after menopause
prolapse of urethral mucosa
2 epi that cover cervix:

these meet at:
squamous and columnar

squamocolumnar junction
columnar epi changes to squamous epi:
metaplasia
retention cysts:
nabothian cysts
: childhood nipples may be slightly elev in fem
: scant, straight, pubic hair
Boys: testes enlarge, scrotal texture
Girls: slight elev of breast
: pubic hair more, curly
boys: penis inc length, testes enlarge
: boys: penis inc width, glans develops, scrotum darkens
girls: areola rises above rest of breast
: Adulthood pubic hair on thighs
girls: areola no longer rises above the rest of the breast
tanner stage
1
2
3
4
5
infrequent or very light menstruation
oligomenorrhea
__________: fairly common, probably congential
abnormality located in the midline superficial to the coccyx or the lower sacrum
look for opening of sinus tract
may exhibit a small tuft of hair and be surrounded by a halo of erythema
pilonidal cyst
dilated veins that orginate below the pectinate line and are covered with skin
seldom produce symptoms unless thrombosis occurs - acute local pain increasing with defecation & sitting
external hemorrhoids (thrombosed)
enlargements of normal vascular cushions located above the pectinate line
usually not palpable
may cause bright red bleeding during defecation
internal hemmorrhoids (prolapsed)
on straining for a bowel movement, the rectal muscosa, with or without its muscular wall, may prolapse through the anus
appears as a doughnut or rosette of red tissue
prolapse of the rectum
a very painful oval ulceration of the anal canal
most commoly in the midline posteriorly
its long axis lies longitudinally
may be a swollen "sentinel" skin tag below it
the sphincter is spastic making the exam painful - may need local anesthesia
anal fissure
an inflammatory tract or tube that opens at one end into the anus or rectum and at the other end onto the skin surface or into another viscus
anorectal fistula
variable in size and number
can develop on a stalk (pedunculated) or lie on the muscosal surface (sessile)
soft and may be difficult or impossible to feel
proctoscopy & biopsy are needed to determine if benign or malignant
polyps of the rectum
asymptomatic _________ of the rectum makes routine rectal exams important for adults
carcinoma
peritoneal mets may develop in the area of the peritonial refection anterior to the rectum
a firm to hard nodular _________ may be palpable with the tip of the finger
rectal shelf
the prostate is about _____ cm long
on DRE the median sulcus and be felt
_________ lesions are not detectable by physical examination
2.5

anterior
an acute, febrile condition caused by bacterial infection
the gland is very tender, swollen, firm & warm
acute prostatitis
_____________ doesnt produce consistent findings and must be evaluated by other methods
chronic prostatitis
the prostate feels symmetrically enlarged, smooth, and firm though slightly elastic
seems to protrude more into the rectal lumen
median sulcus may by obliterated

finding a normal size gland by palpation doesn't rule it out
BPH
it is suggested by an area of hardness in the prostate
a distinct hard nodule that alters the contour of the gland may or may not be palpable
fells irregular & may extend beyond the gland
cancer of the prostate
anal canal held closed by voluntary________and involuntary________
external anal sphincter

internal anal sphincter(extension of muscular coat of rectal wall)
anorectal jxn denotes boudary b/t somatic and visceral nerve supplies
pectinate or dentate line
3 lobes surround urethra
prostate gland
shaped like rabbit ears above prostate and aren't normally palpable
seminal vescicles
felt through ant wall of rectum in females
cervix
3 inward foldings in rectal wall
valves of houston
black stools

red blood in stools
melena

hematochezia
change in bowel pattern, expecially thin pencil like caliber may warn of
cancer
blood in stool from:
polyps
cancer
GI bleeding
local hemorrhoids
mucus in villous adenoma
proctitis with:

Bleeding in anorectal infx w/:
anorectal pain
pruritus
tenesmus
discharge

gonorrhea
chlamydia
lymphogranuloma venereum
ulcerations in:

chancre in:
herpes simplex

primary syphilis
itching in younger pts from:
pinworms
genital warts from:

condylomata lata

anal fissures in:
hpv

in secondary syphilis

proctitis, crohn's dz
discomfort or heaviness in prostate area or assoc w/ malaise,fever,or chills suggests:
prostatitis
leading cancer dx in men in U.S. and 2nd cause of death in North American men
prostate cr.
highest incidence of prostate cr.:

lowest:
african american men

asian and native american
discomfort or heaviness in prostate area or assoc w/ malaise,fever,or chills suggests:
prostatitis
leading cancer dx in men in U.S. and 2nd cause of death in North American men
prostate cr.
highest incidence of prostate cr.:

lowest:
african american men

asian and native american
discomfort or heaviness in prostate area or assoc w/ malaise,fever,or chills suggests:
prostatitis
leading cancer dx in men in U.S. and 2nd cause of death in North American men
prostate cr.
highest incidence of prostate cr.:

lowest:
african american men

asian and native american
AVG. AGE OF DX AND DEATH FROM PROSTATE CR
70
SCREENING TESTS FOR PROSTATE CR
DRE
PSA
INCOMPLETE EMPTYING OF BLADDER, URINARY FREQ OR URGENCY, WEAK STREAM, STRAIN TO INITIATE FLOW, HEMATURIA, NOCTURIA, PAIN IN PELVIS
SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATE D/O
SCREENING TESTS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER
DRE
FOBT
SIGMOIDOSCOPY(every 3-5 yrs over 50)
hemorrhoids, venereal warts, herpes, syphilitic chancre, carcinoma
anal and perianal lesions
anal sphincter tightens in:

laxity in:
inflammation,scarring

neurologic dz
induration may be due to:
inflammation, scarring, or malignancy