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41 Cards in this Set

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NH3 from N2 (commercially)
N2 + 3H2 (400-500 C, 100-1000 atm, Fe/AlO3/K20) -> 2NH3
HNO3 from NH3 (commercially)
4NH3 + 5O2 (1000 c, Pt) -> 4NO + 6H2O

2NO + O2 -> 2NO2
3NO2 + H2O -> 2HNO3 + NO
H2SO4 FROM S8 (COMMERCIALLY)
S8 + 8O2 -> 8 SO2
2SO2 + O2 (D, V205) -> 2SO3
SO3 + H20 -> H2SO4
Cl2
2 NaCl(l) -> (elect.) Cl2 + 2Na

or

2 Cl- + 2H2O -> (elect.) Cl2 + H2 + 2OH-
Si
SiO2 + 2C (D) -> Si + 2 CO
Si + 2Cl2 -> SiCl4
SiCl4 + 2H2 -> Si + 4HCl
(last 2 steps are purification)
XeO3 from Xe (any scale)
Xe + 3 F2 -> XeF6
XeF6 + 3H2O -> XeO3 + 6HF
Br2 (any scale)
2 Br- + Cl2 -> Br2 + 2 Cl-
P4 (any scale)
2 Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 SiO2 (D) -> P4O10 + 6 CaSiO3
P4O10 + 10 C (D) -> P4 + 10 CO
IF3 (any scale)
I2 + 3 F2 -> 2 IF3
or
I2 + 5F2 -> 2IF5
3IF5 + I2 -> 5IF3
B2H6 (any scale)
8BF3 + 6 LiH -> 6LiBF4 + B2H6
Sn (any scale)
SnO2 + 2C (D)-> Sn + 2CO
SO2Cl2 + 2H2O ->
H2SO4 + 2 HCl
SiH4 + 2O2 ->
SiO2 + 2 H2O
NOF3 + AsF5 ->
[NOF2]+ [AsF6]-
SO3 + H2O ->
H2SO4
N2O4 (heated) ->
2NO2
CN- + S8 ->
8 SCN-
closo
n vertices; n+1 e- pairs
[BnHn]2-
nido
n-1 vertices; n+1 e- pairs
[BnHn+4]
arachno
n-2 vertices; n+1 e- pairs
"s"
=q-x=p-t=2y+x
(BH)p(H)q
BpH(p+q)
Pb synthesis
2PbS + 3O2 -> 2PbO + 2SO2
PbO + C -> Pb + CO
Recovery of Al from bauxite
bauxite + OH- -> Al(OH)4- + Fe2O3(s) +...
Al(OH)4- + CO2 -> CO3(2-) + 2Al(OH)3 (s) + H2O
Al2O3 + 3C -> (elect., Na3AlF6(l)) 4 Al + 3 CO2
Recovery of B from Borax
Na2B4O5(OH)4.8H2O + H2SO4 -> 4B(OH)3 + Na2SO4 + H2O

2B(OH)3 (D)-> B2O3 + 3H20
B2O3 + 3 Mg (D)-> 2B + 3MgO
2B + 3Br2 -> 2BBr3
3BBr3 + 3H2 (D)-> 2B + 6HBr
preparation of N2 (3 ways)
2NaN3 (D)-> 2Na + 3N2

NH4NO2 (D)-> N2 + 2H2O

2NH4NO3 (D)-> 2N2 + O2 + 4H2O
preparation of As (from As2O3)
As2O3 + C -> As + CO
Preparation of Bi (from Bi2S3)
Bi2S3 + O2 (D)-> Bi2O3
Bi2O3 + C (D)-> Bi + CO
Preparation of O2 (2 ways)
2KClO3 (MnO2, D)-> 3O2 + 2KCl

2H2O2 (MnO2 or Pt) -> O2 + H2O
Mining S
2H2S + O2 -> 2H2O + 2"S"
Preparation of F2
CaF2 + H2SO4 (D)-> CaSO4 + HF
HF + KF -> K(HF2)
2KHF2 (elect.) -> 2KF + H2 + F2
(must keep H2 and F2 separated or they will recombine to form HF!)
I2
Cl2 + 2I- -> I2 + 2 Cl-
(I2 and Br2 prepared the same way)
Thermite process
2Al + Fe2O3 -> Al2O3 + 2 Fe
Hydroformylation
general rxn. & catalyst
alkenes -> aldehydes
RCh=CH2 + H2 + CO -> RCH2CH2CHO

catalyst = HCo(CO)4
(subtract a CO, add alkene, add CO, add H2, lose aldehyde)
Zeigler-Natta polymerization
catalyst
R3Al + TiCl4
(use TiCl4R)
Monsanto acetic acid synthesis:
overall rxn. and catalyst
MeOH + CO -> MeCO2H
catalyst: Rh(I)2(CO)2
(side cycle of H2O and HI)
Hydrogenation - Wilkinson's catalyst
RhCl(PP3)3
(lose PP3, add H2, add alkene, make alkane, lose alkane)
Wacher process
general rxn. and catalyst
ethene to acetaldehyde
CH2=CH2 + 1/2 O2 -> CH3CHO

catalyst = PdCl4 2-

(side cyle 2Cu+ -> 2Cu 2+, 1/2)2 + 2H+ -> H2O)
* position of alcohol changes (1o to 2o)
[Rh(CO)4]+ , [Pd(CO)4]2+, [Pt(CO)4]2+
square planar
Ni(CO)4, Cu(CO)4 + , [Co(CO)4]-, [Fe(CO)4]2-
tetrahedral
Fe(CO)5, [Co(CO)5]+, [Mn(CO)5]-
trigonal bipyramidal
[Mn(CO)5]- in Ph2P+ salt
square based pyramidal