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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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shape, volume, compressibility, flow, diffusion, and pressure of a solid
definite, definite, no, no, no, no
shape, volume, compressibility, flow, diffusion, and pressure of a liquid
container, definite, minimil, yes, yes (to some extent), yes
shape, volume, compressibility, flow, diffusion, and pressure of a gas
no shape, V of container, yes, yes, yes, a lot (yes)
Vaporization (laymen say?)
liquid to gas....boiling
condensation
gas to liquid
sublimation
solid to gas
deposition
gas to solid
heat of fusion is? number for water?
melting....6.01KJ/mole
specific heat of h20
4.18J/goC liquid h20
heat of vaporization for h20?
40.7 KJ/mole
vapor pressure
the partial pressure of the vapor over the liquid
temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure exerted on the liquid
boiling point
heat needed for the melting of a solid is called
heat of fusion
Halogen
salt producer
molecular weight relating to boiling point
as molecular weight gets higher and higher so does the boiling point
phase diagram
graphical way to summarize the conditions under which the different states of a substance are stable
triple point
the point on a phase diagram in which all three states of a substance can exist
critical point
the highest temperature a liquid can get before it says it must change to a gas
critical temperature
the highest temperature a liquid can get to before it must change to a gas
critical pressure
the highest pressure that can be exerted on a liquid before it says it has to become a gas
critical pressure and temp for H20?
pressure: 218atm
temp:374 oC
Critical pressure and temp for O2
pressure: 49.7ATM
Temp:154.4K
equation to determine water vapor pressure
ln(P2/P1)= ΔHvap/R * (1/T1- 1/T2)

e=8.31J/molK
Crystaline

give 1 example
composed of 1 or more crystals and each crystal has a well defined shape in terms of ordered structure in 3D

diamond
Amorphous

give 1 exampe
Disordered structure which lacks well defined arrangement found in crystal

glass
Crystal Lattice
geometric arrangement of lattice points of a crystal in which we choose 1 lattice point at the same location within each of the basic units of the crystal
Unit Cell
off a crystal is the smallest box like unit from which you can imagine constructing a crystal by stacking the units in 3D
SCC
simple centered cube
1atom each unit cell
8 corners
BCC
Body centered cube
2atoms each unit cell
8 corners, 1 middle
FCC
Face centered cube
4 atoms each unit cell
8 corners, 6 faces
volume of a cube
L^3
HCP
ABABAB
most effective packing
6atoms
CCP
ABCABC
also called FCC
4 atoms
surface tension
energy required to increase surface area of a liquid by a unit amount
viscosity
-resistance to flow
-higher #, more resistance to flow
-higher molecular mass, more viscosity.
London forces
-due to temporary dipoles resulting from momentary asymmetry in the electron cloud of the molecule
-non polar molecules
-no ions involved
All molecules have what force?
london forces
Hydrogen bonding
strong dipole-dipole interaction that occurs when hydrogen is bonded to N, O or F
In hydrocarbons, the strength of intermolecular attractions increases with increasing chain length? y?
there are more places along the chain that can be attracted to other molecules
the force that makes water bead up is?
surface tension
intermolecular forces
the forces of interaction between molecules
dipole-dipole forces
-polar molecules
-tendency of a polar molecule to allign itself so that the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another.
3 Van der waals forces
London forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding
volume of a cube
L^3
Ion dipole forces
KBr in H20 K+ attaches to O- and Br- attaches to H+
HCP
ABABAB
most effective packing
6atoms
ionic bond
NaCl
attracted by charges
CCP
ABCABC
also called FCC
4 atoms
surface tension
energy required to increase surface area of a liquid by a unit amount
viscosity
-resistance to flow
-higher #, more resistance to flow
-higher molecular mass, more viscosity.
London forces
-due to temporary dipoles resulting from momentary asymmetry in the electron cloud of the molecule
-non polar molecules
-no ions involved
All molecules have what force?
london forces
Hydrogen bonding
strong dipole-dipole interaction that occurs when hydrogen is bonded to N, O or F
In hydrocarbons, the strength of intermolecular attractions increases with increasing chain length? y?
there are more places along the chain that can be attracted to other molecules
the force that makes water bead up is?
surface tension
intermolecular forces
the forces of interaction between molecules
dipole-dipole forces
-polar molecules
-tendency of a polar molecule to allign itself so that the positive end of one molecule is near the negative end of another.
3 Van der waals forces
London forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding
Ion dipole forces
KBr in H20 K+ attaches to O- and Br- attaches to H+
ionic bond
NaCl
attracted by charges
covalent bonding
networked: forget all forces
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of molecular sold
atoms or moleculs; london forces, dipole-dipole forces, H+ bonding; fairly soft, low melting point, poor thermal and electrical conductor or no conductor; Ar, CH4, C12H22O11
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, examples of Covalent network Solid
Covalent compound in a network; covalent bond not brittle, high melting point, poor conductor of heat; Diamond C, quartz Si02
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example Ionic Solid
possitive and negative ions; electrostatic attractions; hard and brittle (fracture easy), high melting points, poor thermal and electrical conductors except when dissolved (super conductor then); salts NaCl
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of metalic solids
Atoms; metallic bonds (sea of electrons); moderatly high melting points, good conductor, malleable and ductile (easily deformed and shaped); all metal elements
covalent bonding
networked: forget all forces
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of molecular sold
atoms or moleculs; london forces, dipole-dipole forces, H+ bonding; fairly soft, low melting point, poor thermal and electrical conductor or no conductor; Ar, CH4, C12H22O11
Colloids
-a particle in a solution
-dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance or solution
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, examples of Covalent network Solid
Covalent compound in a network; covalent bond not brittle, high melting point, poor conductor of heat; Diamond C, quartz Si02
Tyndall effect
scattering of light by the colloids
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example Ionic Solid
possitive and negative ions; electrostatic attractions; hard and brittle (fracture easy), high melting points, poor thermal and electrical conductors except when dissolved (super conductor then); salts NaCl
Aerosal
liquid droplets or solid particals that are dispersed in a gas
emulsion
liquid droplets that are dispersed in another liquid
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of metalic solids
Atoms; metallic bonds (sea of electrons); moderatly high melting points, good conductor, malleable and ductile (easily deformed and shaped); all metal elements
difference between dispersed and disolved
dispersed- can see
disolved- can not see
Colloids
-a particle in a solution
-dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance or solution
Sol
solid partical dispersed in a liquid
Tyndall effect
scattering of light by the colloids
gas dispersed in a gas
no colloid type all gases mix
Aerosal
liquid droplets or solid particals that are dispersed in a gas
emulsion
liquid droplets that are dispersed in another liquid
fog and mist colloid?
colloid- aerosal
liquid in a gas
covalent bonding
networked: forget all forces
smoke
colloid- aerosal
solid in a gas
difference between dispersed and disolved
dispersed- can see
disolved- can not see
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of molecular sold
atoms or moleculs; london forces, dipole-dipole forces, H+ bonding; fairly soft, low melting point, poor thermal and electrical conductor or no conductor; Ar, CH4, C12H22O11
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, examples of Covalent network Solid
Covalent compound in a network; covalent bond not brittle, high melting point, poor conductor of heat; Diamond C, quartz Si02
whipped cream
colloid- foam
gas in a liquid
Sol
solid partical dispersed in a liquid
gas dispersed in a gas
no colloid type all gases mix
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example Ionic Solid
possitive and negative ions; electrostatic attractions; hard and brittle (fracture easy), high melting points, poor thermal and electrical conductors except when dissolved (super conductor then); salts NaCl
fog and mist colloid?
colloid- aerosal
liquid in a gas
form of unit particle, forces between particle, properties, example of metalic solids
Atoms; metallic bonds (sea of electrons); moderatly high melting points, good conductor, malleable and ductile (easily deformed and shaped); all metal elements
smoke
colloid- aerosal
solid in a gas
Colloids
-a particle in a solution
-dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance or solution
whipped cream
colloid- foam
gas in a liquid
Tyndall effect
scattering of light by the colloids
Aerosal
liquid droplets or solid particals that are dispersed in a gas
emulsion
liquid droplets that are dispersed in another liquid
difference between dispersed and disolved
dispersed- can see
disolved- can not see
Sol
solid partical dispersed in a liquid
gas dispersed in a gas
no colloid type all gases mix
fog and mist colloid?
colloid- aerosal
liquid in a gas
smoke
colloid- aerosal
solid in a gas
whipped cream
colloid- foam
gas in a liquid
milk
colloid type: emulsion
liquid in liquid
paint
colloid type: sol
solid in liquid
marshmello
colloid type: solid foam
gas in a solid
butter
colloid type: solid emulsion
liquid in a sold
Ruby glass
colloid type: solid sol
solid in a solid
coagulation
all colloids can do this: process in which the dispersed phase of the colloid aggregates and then seperates from the continuous phase...when colloid rejoins
continuous phase
solvent
dispersed phase
solute
hydrophobic
lack of attraction between dispesed phase and continuous phase
hydrophillic
strong attraction between dispersed phase and continuous phase
micelle
colloid size partical that has hydrophobic end and a hydrophillic end (bilayer)
Association colloid
a micelle that is simply the dispersed phase in a coloid
solute
less of
solvent
more of
solute: gas
solvent: gas
air
solute: gas
solvent:liquid
O2 in air
solute: liquid
solvent:liquid
alcohol in h20
solute: solid
solvent:liquid
salt in h20
solute: solid
solvent:gas
hydrogen in pallidium
solute: solid
solvent:liquid
dental fillings: mercury in silver
solute: solid
solvent:solid
silver in gold
unsaturated
you can keep adding a solute
saturated
you can't add any more solute
super saturated
heat up solution to continue to add solute
water relating to alcohol
water likes OH in alcohol hydrocarbon: as alcohol chain gets longer solubility gets lower
what dissolves what?
like dissolves like
molarity equation
M=moles of solute/liters of solution
Mass % equation
mass of solute/mass of solution * 100%

mass of solution is dumb
mole fraction
moles of solute/moles of solution

moles of solution is dumb
molality
m=moles of solute/ kg solvent

6.5 molal

kg of solvent is dumb