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### 173 Cards in this Set

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 experiment? carried out in a controlled manner so that duplicate results can be obtained. Law consise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity in nature theory when a hypothesis passes many tests it then explains natural phenomena hypothesis an explanation of why an experiment will or has occured 6 steps of the scientific method 1)experiment 2)results 3)hypothesis 4)further experiments 5)theory 6)further experiments law of definate proportions a pure compound always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass mixture can be seperated by physical means into 2 or more substances how many sig figs 1) 13.0980 2)0.000919 3)198,000 1)6 2)3 3)3 * and / sig fig rules + and - rules 1) use measurement number with least amount of sig figs 2)same number of decimal places as there are with the measurement with the least # of decimal places precision vs. accuracy precision is how close 2 or more of the same experimental values are... accuracy is how close the answer is to the actual answer si prefixes from 10^-12 up to 10^12 12 total pico, nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, deka, hecto, kilo, mega, giga, tera angstrom equivelent 10^-10m C<>F C<>K F=1.8C+32 K=C+273.15 Area Volume Density Speed 1)Length squared m^2 2)Length cubed m^2 3)Mass per unit volume kg/m^3 4)Distance traveled per unit time m/s Acceleration Force Pressure Energy 1)Speed change per unit time m/s^2 2)Mass times acceleration of object kg*m/s^2 (=newton N) 3)Force per unit area kg/ms^2 (=pascal, Pa) 4)force times distance traveled kg*m^2/s^2 (=joule J) 1L and 1ml equivalencies in m^3 dm^3, cm^3 1in= ?cm 1yd= ?m 1mi= ?km 1mi= ?ft 2.54cm .9144m 1.609km 5280ft 1 lb= ?kg 1 lb= ?oz. 1 qt.= ?L 4qt= ?gal .4536kg 16oz .9464L 4gal nucleus the atom's central core, which is positively charged and contains most of the atom's mass, and one or more electrons. periods vs. groups periods go horizontal groups go vertical Polymer vs. monomer chain of paper clips: monomer would be the individual paper clip and polymer would be the whole binary compound composed of only 2 elements greek prefixes for naming compounds 1-MONO 2-DI 3-TRI 4-TETRA 5-PENTA 6-HEXA 7-HEPTA 8-OCTA 9-NONA 10-DECA Anion suffix to acid suffix? 3 ate-ic ite-ous ide- hydro,...,ic MgSO4 . 7H20 is? magnesium sulfate heptahydrate deterimining Limiting reactant divide moles of substance by front coeficient: the lower number is the LR mole road set up stoich 1)g/mol of substance or Molarity 2)balanced equation 3)g or volume 4)mol 5)LR if needed stoich from one to another divide by coeficients! percent error formula %err.=absv.(Accepted value-Experimentalvalue)/Acc. value *100% combustion CxHyOx+O2>COx+H2O Single Replacement AB+C>CB+A .. use cuteness scale: will switch if higher up Double Replacement AB+CD>AD+CB ***if both products are strong electrolytes then no rxn. molar mass mass of one mole of substance: C-12 has a molar mass of exactly 12g/mol Percent yield eq Percent yield=actual yield/theoretical yield *100% n moles from molecular weight and empirical weight n=molecular weight/empirical formula weight Mass % A mass of A in the whole/mass of the whole *100% aqueous any solution in which water is the solvent ammonia NH3 name the 8 periodic groups and one in the middle 1)alkali metals 2)alkaline earth metala 3-6)boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, 7)halogens 8)noble gases what are the soluble or slightly soluble bases all alkali metals and Ca, Ba, Sr Specific heat amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of that substance by 1degC J/gdegC complete vs. net ionic equation net has spectator ions cancelled out write this as a complete ionic equation: Na2CO3(aq) 2Na+(aq) + CO3(-2)(aq) acid vs. base -acid produces H+ ions when dissoved in water -a base is a substance that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water 6 strong acids HClO4 Perchloric Acid H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid HI Hydroiodic Acid HBr Hydrobromic Acid HCl Chloric Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid srong electrolytes 1)soluble and slightly soluble salts 2)strong acids 3)soluble and slightly soluble bases combination reaction? synthesis A+B>AB Decomposition reaction AB>A+B Acid Base Neutralization H(anion)+(cation)OH >H20+(Cation)(Anion) ((ionic compound or salt)) Acid-Carbonate H(Anion)+(Cation)CO3 >H20+CO2+(cation)(anion) Acid-sulfite H(anion)+(cation)SO3>H20+SO2+(Cation)(Anion) Acid-Sulfide H(anion)+(cation)S >H2S+(anion)(cation) beta particle radiation particle that is essentially and electron subatomic particle with highest mass Neutron Area formula relating to volume A=V/H relative abundance formula %ind./%total ex. 100.00/185.6 highest will always have 100.00% calculate atomic mass sumof(indmass*(relative abundance)) substance can't be seperated by physical means into other kinds of matter 2 grahms law of effusion equations (rate eff gas A/rate eff gas B) = sqrt(Mm gas B/Mm gas A) (time gas A to eff/time gas B to eff)=sqrt(MmgasB/MmgasA) sand SiO2 Marble CaCO3 order of english liquid conversions 5 gal 4 qt qt 2 pt pt 2 cup cup 8 fl. oz. Intensive properites properties that don't depend on the amound of material ex. density, boiling point Extensive properties depending on amount of material ex. mass and volume material any particular kind of matter D= use Mm eq D=PMm/RT P/RT is constant at STP STP OdegC, 1atm pressure Combined empirical gas law P1V1/P2V2=T1/T2 1cal=?J 4.18J thermal components any object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy 1atm=? 760torr, 760mmhg 1 lb=?g .254g accounting for water vapor pressure Pgas=Pt-PH20 D= use Mm eq D=PMm/RT P/RT is constant at STP STP OdegC, 1atm pressure Combined empirical gas law P1V1/P2V2=T1/T2 1cal=?J 4.18J thermal components any object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy 1atm=? 760torr, 760mmhg 1 lb=?g .254g accounting for water vapor pressure Pgas=Pt-PH20 Change in Temp= Changein Temp=(Tf-Ti) Changein Enthalpy m(Tf-Ti)s Specific heat of water 1cal/g degC 4.18J/g degC Na=17.55g Cr=39.70g O=42.75g calculate whole mole ratio moles: Act. mol. rat: w# m rat .7634 1.000 2 .7634 1.000 2 2.672 3.500 7 Na2Cr2O7 Strong bases All column 1, column 2=Ca,Sr,Ba all soluble and slightly solube hydroxides, except for NH4OH (soluble, but not a strong base) strong electrolytes -soluble salts (slightly as well) -6 strong acids -Strong bases-Soluble and slightly solube hydroxides except for ammonium dalton's law of partial pressure the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all partial pressures Charles Law V1/V2=T1/T2 Boyle's Law P1/P2=V2/V1 Gay-Lussak's Law P1/P2=T1/T2 mole fraction formula x moles gas/total moles addendum to Dalton's Law Partial pressure of a gas equals its mol fraction times the total pressure 4 parts of Kinetic theory of gases -average Kinetic energy of gas molecules is proportional to absolute temp -volume of molecule does not matter -molecules move in straight lines, until they collide with other molecules or wall -not attracted or reppelled by other molecules, until they collide with other molecules :elastic then billboard thermal components any specified object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy sum of all thermal components should? equal 0 Heat capacity (C)amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of that object by 1degC J/degC ▲H=C(Tf-Ti) calorimeter device used to measure heat capacity molar heat capacity (Cm) amount of energy needed to raise 1 mole of a substance by 1oC Cm=Mm*s (J/mol degC) ▲H=n(Tf-Ti)Cm heat of formation the change in enthalpy for the production of 1mol of substance from its elements in standard state ▲Hof ▲H can also be represented by what? q allotrope one or two more distinct forms of an element in the same physical state standard heat of formation def and also what? enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of the substance in its standard state from its elements in their reference form and standard states standard enthalpy of formation standard state standard thermodynamic conditions chosen for substances when listing or comparing thermodynamic date: 1 atm pressure and 25oC usually reference form stablest form of the element under standard thermodynamic conditions standard heat of reaction enthalpy change for a reaction in which reactants in their standard states yield products in their standard states ▲Ho or ▲Hrxn ▲Ho=Ȇ(np*▲Hfo products)- Ȇ(mr*▲Hfo reactants) np=coefficants of product mr=coefficants of reactants ▲H= basic =H(products)-H(reactants) =qp thermodynamics science between heat and other forms of energy 2 rules for manipulating thermochemical equation 1)when a thermochemical equation is multiplied by any factor, the value of ▲H for the new equation is obtained by multiplying the value of ▲H in the original equation by that same factor 2)when a chemical equation is reversed, the value of ▲H is reversed in sign Hess's law using known thermochemical equations to determine an unknown using 2 rules to manipulate equations -2a, -3b, C, etc... add up total ▲H to get for reaction Change in Temp= Changein Temp=(Tf-Ti) Changein Enthalpy m(Tf-Ti)s Specific heat of water 1cal/g degC 4.18J/g degC Na=17.55g Cr=39.70g O=42.75g calculate whole mole ratio moles: Act. mol. rat: w# m rat .7634 1.000 2 .7634 1.000 2 2.672 3.500 7 Na2Cr2O7 dalton's law of partial pressure the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all partial pressures Charles Law V1/V2=T1/T2 Boyle's Law P1/P2=V2/V1 Gay-Lussak's Law P1/P2=T1/T2 mole fraction formula x moles gas/total moles addendum to Dalton's Law Partial pressure of a gas equals its mol fraction times the total pressure 4 parts of Kinetic theory of gases -average Kinetic energy of gas molecules is proportional to absolute temp -volume of molecule does not matter -molecules move in straight lines, until they collide with other molecules or wall -not attracted or reppelled by other molecules, until they collide with other molecules :elastic then billboard thermal components any specified object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy sum of all thermal components should? equal 0 speed of light 186,000 miles per second or 2.9979*10^8 m/s C wavelength distance between any 2 points on a wave λ=symbol frequency number of wavelengths in a fixed period of time--- V light formula C=Vλ C=2.9979*10^8m/s monochromatic radiation composed of single wavelength Wavelength of various e.m. radiation Gamma- less than 10 pm Xray- 10pm-10nm ultraviolet- 10nm-400nm visible- 400nm-700nm (roygbiv) reversed infared- 700nm-1mm microwaves-1mm-10mm radar waves- 10mm-100mm radio waves- more than 100mm Planks formula E=hv E= energy of photon of light in Joules h=planks constant (6.6262*10^-34 Js higher energy vs. lower energy higher energy has higher frequency and shorter wavelength Balmer series all of the photons that go back to the second energy level of H+ ....produces visible light orbital region around atom that holds a maximum of 2e- 5 sublevels and orbitals s,p,d,f,g 1,3,5,7,9 electronegativity tendency of atom to attract bonded (shared) electrons polar if greater than .5 nonpolar if leass than .5 Oxygen and electronegative rules of lewis dot structure -Oxygen atoms rarely bond together -Least electronegative atom is usually central(carbon is almost always central) Electron and bond accounting set up VNSL... vinny needs sexy ladies Se=ne-ve Le=ve-se Formal charge 4 rules 1)assign electrons to each atom-lone electrons belong to its atom-shared electrons are equally shared by atoms(each bond, each atom gets 1 electron) 2)assign each atom a formal charge (FC=Ve-Ae)...sum of the formal charge should equal the charge of species 3)preferred structure is one with lowest sum of absolue value of all formal charges 4)tie, choose the structure where the negative F.C is on the most electronegative resonating stucture -bond is resonating -atom remains in same position -must be equal likelyhood for the bond to exist at either location for a molecule to be polar it must... 1)polar molecule must be assymetrical 2)must have at least one polar bond ▲H relating to bond energies ▲H=sumof(bond energies reactants)- sumof(bond energies product) 4 quantum numbers 1)principle quantum number 2)angular momentup quantum number s,p,d,f,g depends on 1st q# 3)Magnetic Quantum Number 4)Spin Quantum Number first 3 quantum numbers do what tell the probability of finding an electron in space Principle quantum number (n)=energy level 1,2,3,4... or K,L,M,N Angular momentum quantum number (ɪ) s,p,d,f,g... 0,1,2,3,4 2p denotes a subshell with quantum numbers n=2 and ɪ=1 Magnetic Quantum Number Mɪ depends on the ɪ value ɪ=3 Mɪ= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 Spin quantum number Ms refers to the two possible orientations of the spin axis of an electron: +1/2 or -1/2 up is plus 1/2 (always fills first this way) first half of orbital is +1/2 and second half is -1/2 Pauli exclusion principle no two electrons can have same quantum #s Hund's rule atom is most stable when electrons in a sublevel are singly in orbitals and identical spins, before they pair up paramagnetism slight magnetic attraction of atom to a strong magnetic field- caused by unpaired electrons diamagnetic slight magnetic repulsion from a magnet (all electrons are paired exceptions to aufbau principles Cr, aufbau filling principles -1s2 2s2 2p6... -d is minus 1, f is minus 2 -use previous noble gas in brackets -always fills lower energies first effective nuclear charge Zeff=Z-S Z=charge of nucleus S=repulsion up and right stronger charge, the tigher atom will be -more protons, more attraction -more energy levels, more shielding atomic radius left and down size of ions -cations are always much smaller than parent atoms -anions are always much larger than their parent atoms ionization energy energy needed to remove an electron from an atom -higher the energy, the harder to remove an electron -up, right electron affinity -ability to attract an electron -up and right electronegativity -ability of a covalently bonded atom to attract the electrons in the bond -up and right oxidation/reduction reaction oil rig... 1)put charge over all elements 2)write half reacion ex. Zn>Zn(+2)+2e(-)) oxid. Ag(+)+e(-)>Ag reduct. 3)multiply entire equation to equal e- for both 4)cancel out e- and have equation ionic bond chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions Covalent bond shared electrons non-polar covalent bond equal sharing of electrons polar covalent bond non-equal sharing of electrons e- spend more time near one atom than another symetrical molecules 1)central atom with 2 identical atoms attached to it in a linear arrangement 2)central atom with 3 identical atoms attached in trigonal planar arrangement 3)a central atom with 4 identical atoms attached in a tetrahedral arrangement 7 vsepr model geometric shapes -atoms bonded to central atom -lone pairs of electrons on central atom Linear- 2,0 Trigonal planar- 3,0 Tetrahedral- 4,0 Trigonal pyramidal- 3,1 Angular bent- 2,1 or 2 Trigonal bipyramidal-5,0 Octahedral- 6,0 1 lb=g 1 L=qt 1 lb=453.59g 1L=1.06qt electron affinity energy released when an atom in its gaseous state gains an electron, thus becoming an anion... increases up and right atomic mass unit the mass of 1/12 of a carbon 12 isotope Proton charge positive neutron neutral charge ▲H involving bond energies ▲H=Ȇ(mr*▲H bond energies reactants)- Ȇ(np*▲H bond energies products) np=coefficants of product mr=coefficants of reactants rate of eff and time of eff equations rate effgas A/rate effgas B= sqrt(MMgasB/MMgasA) time gas A eff/time gas B eff=sqrt(MMgasA/MMgasB)