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173 Cards in this Set

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experiment?
carried out in a controlled manner so that duplicate results can be obtained.
Law
consise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity in nature
theory
when a hypothesis passes many tests it then explains natural phenomena
hypothesis
an explanation of why an experiment will or has occured
6 steps of the scientific method
1)experiment
2)results
3)hypothesis
4)further experiments
5)theory
6)further experiments
law of definate proportions
a pure compound always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass
mixture
can be seperated by physical means into 2 or more substances
how many sig figs
1) 13.0980
2)0.000919
3)198,000
1)6
2)3
3)3
* and / sig fig rules

+ and - rules
1) use measurement number with least amount of sig figs
2)same number of decimal places as there are with the measurement with the least # of decimal places
precision vs. accuracy
precision is how close 2 or more of the same experimental values are...
accuracy is how close the answer is to the actual answer
si prefixes from 10^-12 up to 10^12
12 total
pico, nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, deka, hecto, kilo, mega, giga, tera
angstrom equivelent
10^-10m
C<>F
C<>K
F=1.8C+32
K=C+273.15
Area
Volume
Density
Speed
1)Length squared m^2
2)Length cubed m^2
3)Mass per unit volume kg/m^3
4)Distance traveled per unit time m/s
Acceleration
Force
Pressure
Energy
1)Speed change per unit time m/s^2
2)Mass times acceleration of object kg*m/s^2 (=newton N)
3)Force per unit area
kg/ms^2 (=pascal, Pa)
4)force times distance traveled kg*m^2/s^2 (=joule J)
1L and 1ml equivalencies in m^3
dm^3, cm^3
1in= ?cm
1yd= ?m
1mi= ?km
1mi= ?ft
2.54cm
.9144m
1.609km
5280ft
1 lb= ?kg
1 lb= ?oz.
1 qt.= ?L
4qt= ?gal
.4536kg
16oz
.9464L
4gal
nucleus
the atom's central core, which is positively charged and contains most of the atom's mass, and one or more electrons.
periods vs. groups
periods go horizontal
groups go vertical
Polymer vs. monomer
chain of paper clips: monomer would be the individual paper clip and polymer would be the whole
binary compound
composed of only 2 elements
greek prefixes for naming compounds
1-MONO
2-DI
3-TRI
4-TETRA
5-PENTA
6-HEXA
7-HEPTA
8-OCTA
9-NONA
10-DECA
Anion suffix to acid suffix?
3
ate-ic
ite-ous
ide- hydro,...,ic
MgSO4 . 7H20 is?
magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
deterimining Limiting reactant
divide moles of substance by front coeficient: the lower number is the LR
mole road set up
stoich
1)g/mol of substance or Molarity
2)balanced equation
3)g or volume
4)mol
5)LR if needed
stoich from one to another
divide by coeficients!
percent error formula
%err.=absv.(Accepted value-Experimentalvalue)/Acc. value *100%
combustion
CxHyOx+O2>COx+H2O
Single Replacement
AB+C>CB+A .. use cuteness scale: will switch if higher up
Double Replacement
AB+CD>AD+CB
***if both products are strong electrolytes then no rxn.
molar mass
mass of one mole of substance: C-12 has a molar mass of exactly 12g/mol
Percent yield eq
Percent yield=actual yield/theoretical yield *100%
n moles from molecular weight and empirical weight
n=molecular weight/empirical formula weight
Mass % A
mass of A in the whole/mass of the whole *100%
aqueous
any solution in which water is the solvent
ammonia
NH3
name the 8 periodic groups and one in the middle
1)alkali metals
2)alkaline earth metala
3-6)boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen,
7)halogens
8)noble gases
what are the soluble or slightly soluble bases
all alkali metals and Ca, Ba, Sr
Specific heat
amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of that substance by 1degC J/gdegC
complete vs. net ionic equation
net has spectator ions cancelled out
write this as a complete ionic equation:
Na2CO3(aq)
2Na+(aq) + CO3(-2)(aq)
acid vs. base
-acid produces H+ ions when dissoved in water
-a base is a substance that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water
6 strong acids
HClO4 Perchloric Acid
H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid
HI Hydroiodic Acid
HBr Hydrobromic Acid
HCl Chloric Acid
HNO3 Nitric Acid
srong electrolytes
1)soluble and slightly soluble salts
2)strong acids
3)soluble and slightly soluble bases
combination reaction?
synthesis
A+B>AB
Decomposition reaction
AB>A+B
Acid Base Neutralization
H(anion)+(cation)OH >H20+(Cation)(Anion) ((ionic compound or salt))
Acid-Carbonate
H(Anion)+(Cation)CO3 >H20+CO2+(cation)(anion)
Acid-sulfite
H(anion)+(cation)SO3>H20+SO2+(Cation)(Anion)
Acid-Sulfide
H(anion)+(cation)S >H2S+(anion)(cation)
beta particle
radiation particle that is essentially and electron
subatomic particle with highest mass
Neutron
Area formula relating to volume
A=V/H
relative abundance formula
%ind./%total ex. 100.00/185.6

highest will always have 100.00%
calculate atomic mass
sumof(indmass*(relative abundance))
substance
can't be seperated by physical means into other kinds of matter
2 grahms law of effusion equations
(rate eff gas A/rate eff gas B)
= sqrt(Mm gas B/Mm gas A)

(time gas A to eff/time gas B to eff)=sqrt(MmgasB/MmgasA)
sand
SiO2
Marble
CaCO3
order of english liquid conversions 5
gal 4 qt
qt 2 pt
pt 2 cup
cup 8 fl. oz.
Intensive properites
properties that don't depend on the amound of material
ex. density, boiling point
Extensive properties
depending on amount of material ex. mass and volume
material
any particular kind of matter
D=

use Mm eq
D=PMm/RT

P/RT is constant at STP
STP
OdegC, 1atm pressure
Combined empirical gas law
P1V1/P2V2=T1/T2
1cal=?J
4.18J
thermal components
any object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy
1atm=?
760torr, 760mmhg
1 lb=?g
.254g
accounting for water vapor pressure
Pgas=Pt-PH20
D=

use Mm eq
D=PMm/RT

P/RT is constant at STP
STP
OdegC, 1atm pressure
Combined empirical gas law
P1V1/P2V2=T1/T2
1cal=?J
4.18J
thermal components
any object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy
1atm=?
760torr, 760mmhg
1 lb=?g
.254g
accounting for water vapor pressure
Pgas=Pt-PH20
Change in Temp=
Changein Temp=(Tf-Ti)
Changein Enthalpy
m(Tf-Ti)s
Specific heat of water
1cal/g degC 4.18J/g degC
Na=17.55g
Cr=39.70g
O=42.75g
calculate whole mole ratio
moles: Act. mol. rat: w# m rat
.7634 1.000 2
.7634 1.000 2
2.672 3.500 7
Na2Cr2O7
Strong bases
All column 1,
column 2=Ca,Sr,Ba
all soluble and slightly solube hydroxides, except for NH4OH (soluble, but not a strong base)
strong electrolytes
-soluble salts (slightly as well)
-6 strong acids
-Strong bases-Soluble and slightly solube hydroxides except for ammonium
dalton's law of partial pressure
the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all partial pressures
Charles Law
V1/V2=T1/T2
Boyle's Law
P1/P2=V2/V1
Gay-Lussak's Law
P1/P2=T1/T2
mole fraction formula
x moles gas/total moles
addendum to Dalton's Law
Partial pressure of a gas equals its mol fraction times the total pressure
4 parts of Kinetic theory of gases
-average Kinetic energy of gas molecules is proportional to absolute temp
-volume of molecule does not matter
-molecules move in straight lines, until they collide with other molecules or wall
-not attracted or reppelled by other molecules, until they collide with other molecules :elastic then billboard
thermal components
any specified object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy
sum of all thermal components should?
equal 0
Heat capacity
(C)amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of that object by 1degC J/degC
▲H=C(Tf-Ti)
calorimeter
device used to measure heat capacity
molar heat capacity
(Cm) amount of energy needed to raise 1 mole of a substance by 1oC Cm=Mm*s (J/mol degC)
▲H=n(Tf-Ti)Cm
heat of formation
the change in enthalpy for the production of 1mol of substance from its elements in standard state ▲Hof
▲H can also be represented by what?
q
allotrope
one or two more distinct forms of an element in the same physical state
standard heat of formation
def and also what?
enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of the substance in its standard state from its elements in their reference form and standard states

standard enthalpy of formation
standard state
standard thermodynamic conditions chosen for substances when listing or comparing thermodynamic date: 1 atm pressure and 25oC usually
reference form
stablest form of the element under standard thermodynamic conditions
standard heat of reaction
enthalpy change for a reaction in which reactants in their standard states yield products in their standard states
▲Ho or ▲Hrxn
▲Ho=Ȇ(np*▲Hfo products)- Ȇ(mr*▲Hfo reactants)
np=coefficants of product
mr=coefficants of reactants
▲H= basic
=H(products)-H(reactants)

=qp
thermodynamics
science between heat and other forms of energy
2 rules for manipulating thermochemical equation
1)when a thermochemical equation is multiplied by any factor, the value of ▲H for the new equation is obtained by multiplying the value of ▲H in the original equation by that same factor
2)when a chemical equation is reversed, the value of ▲H is reversed in sign
Hess's law
using known thermochemical equations to determine an unknown using 2 rules to manipulate equations
-2a, -3b, C, etc... add up total ▲H to get for reaction
Change in Temp=
Changein Temp=(Tf-Ti)
Changein Enthalpy
m(Tf-Ti)s
Specific heat of water
1cal/g degC 4.18J/g degC
Na=17.55g
Cr=39.70g
O=42.75g
calculate whole mole ratio
moles: Act. mol. rat: w# m rat
.7634 1.000 2
.7634 1.000 2
2.672 3.500 7
Na2Cr2O7
dalton's law of partial pressure
the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all partial pressures
Charles Law
V1/V2=T1/T2
Boyle's Law
P1/P2=V2/V1
Gay-Lussak's Law
P1/P2=T1/T2
mole fraction formula
x moles gas/total moles
addendum to Dalton's Law
Partial pressure of a gas equals its mol fraction times the total pressure
4 parts of Kinetic theory of gases
-average Kinetic energy of gas molecules is proportional to absolute temp
-volume of molecule does not matter
-molecules move in straight lines, until they collide with other molecules or wall
-not attracted or reppelled by other molecules, until they collide with other molecules :elastic then billboard
thermal components
any specified object/substance that either gains or loses heat energy
sum of all thermal components should?
equal 0
speed of light
186,000 miles per second or 2.9979*10^8 m/s

C
wavelength
distance between any 2 points on a wave
λ=symbol
frequency
number of wavelengths in a fixed period of time--- V
light formula
C=Vλ

C=2.9979*10^8m/s
monochromatic
radiation composed of single wavelength
Wavelength of various e.m. radiation
Gamma- less than 10 pm
Xray- 10pm-10nm
ultraviolet- 10nm-400nm
visible- 400nm-700nm (roygbiv) reversed
infared- 700nm-1mm
microwaves-1mm-10mm
radar waves- 10mm-100mm
radio waves- more than 100mm
Planks formula
E=hv
E= energy of photon of light in Joules
h=planks constant (6.6262*10^-34 Js
higher energy vs. lower energy
higher energy has higher frequency and shorter wavelength
Balmer series
all of the photons that go back to the second energy level of H+ ....produces visible light
orbital
region around atom that holds a maximum of 2e-
5 sublevels and orbitals
s,p,d,f,g
1,3,5,7,9
electronegativity
tendency of atom to attract bonded (shared) electrons

polar if greater than .5
nonpolar if leass than .5
Oxygen and electronegative rules of lewis dot structure
-Oxygen atoms rarely bond together
-Least electronegative atom is usually central(carbon is almost always central)
Electron and bond accounting set up
VNSL... vinny needs sexy ladies

Se=ne-ve
Le=ve-se
Formal charge 4 rules
1)assign electrons to each atom-lone electrons belong to its atom-shared electrons are equally shared by atoms(each bond, each atom gets 1 electron)
2)assign each atom a formal charge (FC=Ve-Ae)...sum of the formal charge should equal the charge of species
3)preferred structure is one with lowest sum of absolue value of all formal charges
4)tie, choose the structure where the negative F.C is on the most electronegative
resonating stucture
-bond is resonating
-atom remains in same position
-must be equal likelyhood for the bond to exist at either location
for a molecule to be polar it must...
1)polar molecule must be assymetrical
2)must have at least one polar bond
▲H relating to bond energies
▲H=sumof(bond energies reactants)- sumof(bond energies product)
4 quantum numbers
1)principle quantum number
2)angular momentup quantum number s,p,d,f,g depends on 1st q#
3)Magnetic Quantum Number
4)Spin Quantum Number
first 3 quantum numbers do what
tell the probability of finding an electron in space
Principle quantum number
(n)=energy level 1,2,3,4... or K,L,M,N
Angular momentum quantum number
(ɪ) s,p,d,f,g... 0,1,2,3,4

2p denotes a subshell with quantum numbers n=2 and ɪ=1
Magnetic Quantum Number
Mɪ depends on the ɪ value

ɪ=3 Mɪ= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3
Spin quantum number
Ms refers to the two possible orientations of the spin axis of an electron: +1/2 or -1/2
up is plus 1/2 (always fills first this way)

first half of orbital is +1/2 and second half is -1/2
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons can have same quantum #s
Hund's rule
atom is most stable when electrons in a sublevel are singly in orbitals and identical spins, before they pair up
paramagnetism
slight magnetic attraction of atom to a strong magnetic field- caused by unpaired electrons
diamagnetic
slight magnetic repulsion from a magnet (all electrons are paired
exceptions to aufbau principles
Cr,
aufbau filling principles
-1s2 2s2 2p6...
-d is minus 1, f is minus 2
-use previous noble gas in brackets
-always fills lower energies first
effective nuclear charge
Zeff=Z-S
Z=charge of nucleus
S=repulsion
up and right
stronger charge, the tigher atom will be
-more protons, more attraction
-more energy levels, more shielding
atomic radius
left and down
size of ions
-cations are always much smaller than parent atoms
-anions are always much larger than their parent atoms
ionization energy
energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
-higher the energy, the harder to remove an electron
-up, right
electron affinity
-ability to attract an electron
-up and right
electronegativity
-ability of a covalently bonded atom to attract the electrons in the bond
-up and right
oxidation/reduction reaction
oil rig...
1)put charge over all elements
2)write half reacion ex.
Zn>Zn(+2)+2e(-)) oxid.
Ag(+)+e(-)>Ag reduct.
3)multiply entire equation to equal e- for both
4)cancel out e- and have equation
ionic bond
chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions
Covalent bond
shared electrons
non-polar covalent bond
equal sharing of electrons
polar covalent bond
non-equal sharing of electrons

e- spend more time near one atom than another
symetrical molecules
1)central atom with 2 identical atoms attached to it in a linear arrangement
2)central atom with 3 identical atoms attached in trigonal planar arrangement
3)a central atom with 4 identical atoms attached in a tetrahedral arrangement
7 vsepr model geometric shapes
-atoms bonded to central atom
-lone pairs of electrons on central atom
Linear- 2,0
Trigonal planar- 3,0
Tetrahedral- 4,0
Trigonal pyramidal- 3,1
Angular bent- 2,1 or 2
Trigonal bipyramidal-5,0
Octahedral- 6,0
1 lb=g
1 L=qt
1 lb=453.59g
1L=1.06qt
electron affinity
energy released when an atom in its gaseous state gains an electron, thus becoming an anion... increases up and right
atomic mass unit
the mass of 1/12 of a carbon 12 isotope
Proton charge
positive
neutron
neutral charge
▲H involving bond energies
▲H=Ȇ(mr*▲H bond energies reactants)- Ȇ(np*▲H bond energies products)
np=coefficants of product
mr=coefficants of reactants
rate of eff and time of eff equations
rate effgas A/rate effgas B= sqrt(MMgasB/MMgasA)

time gas A eff/time gas B eff=sqrt(MMgasA/MMgasB)