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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biomechanics
Effect of muscular forces, joint axes and resistance on the quality and quantity of human movement
Pathomechanics
Abnormal motion and forces produced by the body, most often occurring secondary to trauma
Pathology
Condition produced by an injury or disease
Triage
Process of determining the priority of treatment
Objective Data
Finite measures that are readily reproducible regardless of the individual collecting the info
Baseline measurements
Initial physical findings, either from pre-season physical exam in the athlete or upon the initial evaluation during an injury or illness
Muscle guarding
Voluntarily or involuntarily assuming a posture to protect an injured body area, often through muscular spasm
Dislocation
Complete displacement of the articular surfaces of two joints
Goniometer
Device to measure the motion, in degrees, that a joint is capable of producting around its axis
Macrotrauma
A single force resulting in trauma to the body’s tissues
Insidious
Of gradual onset; with respect o symptoms of an injury or disease having no apparent cause
Symptom
a condition not visually apparent to the examiner, indicating the existence of a disease or injury
Microtrauma
accumulation of subtraumatic forces at the cellular level that eventually causes injury to the tissue
Instability
giving way or subluxation of a joint during functional activity that causes pain and inability to complete the activity
Subluxation
partial or incomplete dislocation of a joint, usually transient in nature; the joint surfaces relocate as the forces causing the joint displacement are relieved
Referred pain
pain at a site other than the actual location trauma; tends to be projected outward fro the torso and distally along the extremities
Sign
an observable condition that indicates the existence of a disease or injury
Overuse syndrome
injury caused by accumulated microtraumatic stress placed on a structure or body area
Syncope
fainting caused by a transient loss of oxygen supply to the brain
sudden death
unexpected and instantaneous death occuring within one hour of the onset of symptoms
Marfan syndrome
a hereditary condition of the connective tissue, bones, muscles, and ligaments; results in degeneration of brain function, cardiac failure, and other visceral problems
Paresthesia
sensation of numbness or tingling caused by the compression of or a lesion to a peripheral nerve
Congenital
a condition existing at or before birth
Sprain
stretching or tearing of ligamentous or capsular tissue
Gait
sequential movments of the spine, pelvis, knee, ankle, foot, and upper extremity when walking or running.
Gross deformity
an abnormality that is visible to the unaided eye
Ecchymosis
a blue or purple area of the skin caused by the movment of blood into the skin
Keloid
hypertrophic scar formation secondary to excessive collagen
Lymph nodes
nodules located in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions, producing WBC's and filtering bacteria from the bloodstream
contralateral
opposite side of body or opposite extremity
crepitus
repeated crackling sensations or sound emanating from a joint or tissue
bursa
fluid-filled sac that decreases friction between adjoining soft tissues or between soft tissue and bones
Normative data
normal ranges of data collected for comparision during the evaluation of an athlete
contraindication
procedure that may prove harmful given the athlete's current condition
soft tissues
all structures other than bone, including muscle, tendon, ligament, capsule, bursa, and skin
malingering
faking or exaggerating the symptoms of an injury or illness
painful arc
an area within a joint's range ofmotion that caues pain, representing compression, impingement, or abrasion of underlying tissues
end-feel
the specific quality of movement felt by an examiner moving a joint to the end of its ROM
break test
an isometric contraction against manual resistance provided by the examiner
upper and lower quarter screen
assessments of the neurologic status of the peripheral nervous system of the upper and lower extremities, through the evaluation of sensation, motor function and deep tendon reflexes, respectively
deep tendon reflex
an involuntary muscle contraction caused by a reflex arc in the spinl cord, initiated by the stretching of receptors within a tendon
dermatome
an area of skin innervated bya single nerve root
upper motor neuron lesion
a lesion proximal to the anterior horn of the spinal cord taht results in paralysis and loss of voluntary movement, spasticity, sensory loss, and pathological reflexes
lower motor neuron lesion
a lesion of the anterior horn of the sinal cord, nerve roots, or the peripheral nerves resulting in decreased reflexes, flaccid paralysis, and atrophy
isokinetic dynamometer
a device that quantitatively measures muscular function through a preset speed of movement
disposition
the immediate and long-term management of an injury or illness
catastrophic
an injury that causes permanent disability or death
neurovascular
pertaining to a bundle formed by nerves, arteries, and veins
hepatitis b virus (HBV)
bloodborn pathogen: a virus resulting in inflammation of the liver. After a 2-6 week incubation period, symptoms include GI and respiratory distrubances, enlrged liver, jaundice, muscle pain, weight loss
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
bloodborn pathogen: the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
biohazard
a substance that is toxic to humans, animals, or the environment
standard (universal) precautions
universally accepted guidelines concerning bloodborne pathogens in patient-clinician interactions
list of standard precautions against bloodborne pathogens
1. protect skin and mucous membranes from exposure. 2. wash skin that comes in contact with soap and water. 3. clean contaminated surfaces with bleach and water 1:10. 3. dispose all sharp objects in biohazard container 4. do not let anyone with open wounds provide direct patient care until wounds heal. 5. bag soiled linen or uniforms and wash separately from others in hot water and detergent