Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
As described in the Ethics Code, an "informed consent" from a client:
can be either oral or written but must be documented.

Standard 3.10 states that consents must be "appropriately documented." While it is always a good idea to obtain a signed written consent, this is not required. An oral consent is acceptable as long as there is a record that the relevant issues were discussed and consent was, in fact, obtained.
Long-term use of which of the following may produce involuntary movements of the tongue and lips, facial grimaces, and sudden jerky movements of the arms and legs:
Chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines are used primarily in the treatment of Schizophrenia. Long-term use of a phenothiazine can produce tardive dyskinesia.
If, as intended, items included in the MMPI-2 distinguish between "normals" and people diagnosed as schizophrenic, depressed, paranoid, etc., this provides evidence of the MMPI-2's:
concurrent validity
If scores on the MMPI correlate with diagnosis, we can say that the MMPI has , which is a type of criterion-related validity. Since the test was designed originally as a diagnostic tool, it is important that it have adequate concurrent validity.
A researcher wants to correlate gender with reaction time (as measured by seconds). The appropriate correlation coefficient in this situation would be which of the following:
point-biserial correlation coefficient is the appropriate coefficient to assess the relationship between a true dichotomous variable (in this case, gender) with an interval or ratio variable (in this case, reaction time measured in seconds).
You obtain a grant to investigate the reasons why people work. Based on your knowledge of the existing research, your hypothesis is that workers will most often cite which of the following as the most important reason for working:
the income-producing aspect of work

In a large-scale study involving employees in eight countries, it was found that the income-producing aspect of work was most commonly cited as the most important reason for working (MOW International Research Team, The Meaning of Working, London: Academic Press, 1987). The second and third reasons, respectively, were found to be intrinsic satisfaction with work and interpersonal contact.
Which of the following types of validity would you be MOST interested in when designing a test to predict academic success in graduate school:
criterion-related

When a test is being used to predict performance on a criterion, you would be most interested in the test's criterion-related validity (e.g., in its correlations with measures of academic achievement).
When designing a research study, an investigator will want to choose a design that reduces potential threats to the study's internal validity. In other words, the investigator will be concerned about which of the following:
maturation, history, and statistical regression

A research design has internal validity if it allows the researcher to determine whether or not the independent variable and the dependent variable are causally related. For the licensing exam, you should be familiar with the "generic" threats to internal and external validity identified by Campbell and Stanley (1963).
Transformational leaders:

A. alter values, beliefs, and attitudes
B. manipulate rewards and punishments
C. rely primarily on informational power
D. are viewed by their followers as having "exceptional powers"
alter values, beliefs, and attitudes

Rather than manipulate rewards, transformational leaders attempt to change the basic values, needs, and beliefs of their followers.
When designing a research study, an investigator will want to choose a design that reduces potential threats to the study's internal validity. In other words, the investigator will be concerned about which of the following:

A. maturation, history, and statistical regression
B.reactivity,contemporary history,and selection
C. Hawthorne effect, social desirability, and rater biases
D. pretest sensitization, experimenter expectancies, and order effects
A.
A research design has internal validity if it allows the researcher to determine whether or not the independent variable and the dependent variable are causally related. For the licensing exam, you should be familiar with the "generic" threats to internal and external validity identified by Campbell and Stanley (1963).
These are three of the threats to internal validity described by Campbell and Stanley. Threats to internal validity are factors irrelevant to the research hypothesis that cause changes in dependent variable scores. Maturation refers to internal processes, such as fatigue or boredom, that affect outcome of the dependent variable. History refers to extraneous events outside or within the experimental situation that affect outcome on the dependent variable. Statistical regression is the tendency for extreme scores to regress towards the mean; in a study in which extreme scores were obtained on a pretest, any change in scores on the posttest could be a function of regression rather than the independent variable.
Transformational leaders:
A. alter values, beliefs, and attitudes

B. Manipulate rewards and punishments

C. rely primarily on informational power

D. are viewed by their followers as having "exceptional powers"
A. alter values, beliefs, and attitudes

Transformational leaders identify and articulate a vision, provide an appropriate model, foster acceptance of group goals, have high performance expectations, provide individualized support, and promote intellectual stimulation.
Dr. Brown, a psychologist, is hired by a company to assess job applicants. Specifically, she is requested to administer projective tests to determine if applicants have a "homosexual orientation." Dr. Brown should:

A. not accept the assignment because it represents an invasion of privacy

B. not accept the assignment because projective tests have been shown to be unreliable and invalid

C. administer the tests but explain their purpose to all applicants

D. administer the tests and report the results to the company
.
This option is consistent with Standard 9.04(b), which states that "Psychologists may refrain from releasing test data to protect a client/patient or others from substantial harm or misuse or misrepresentation of the data or the test." Additionally, Standard 4.04(a) states that "Psychologists include in written and oral reports and consultations, only information germane to the purpose for which the communication is made." A homosexual orientation is not relevant to the ability to do the job and to seek such information as part of a job-related assessment is clearly an invasion of privacy.
Memory loss among patients suffering from Alzheimer's Dementia is believed to be caused by a deterioration of neurons that secrete:

A. GABA
B. serotonin
C. dopamine
D. acetylcholine
D. acetylcholine
is associated with motor functions and linked to memory processes.
According to Chomsky, language is:

A. largely innate

B. a consequense of complex stimulus-response chains

C. a consequence of modeling

D. a figment of our imagination
A. largely innate
Studies comparing the recall ability of subjects, who were or were not allowed to sleep following memorization of a list of words, have provided support for which of the following theories of forgetting:

A. trace decay theory

B. interference theory

C. motivated forgetting theory

D. Ebbinghaus' learning theory curve
B. interference theory
In treating a client suffering from Panic Disorder, a therapist adopting Beck's cognitive approach would initially:

A. have the client identify the antecedents and consequences that are controlling his symptoms

B. help the client understand how the symptoms are controlling different aspects of his life

C. help the client identify the underlying causes of his sx's

D. help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his sx's.
D. help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his sx's.
The ability of the experimenter in Milgram's "obedience studies" to control the behavior of subjects assigned the role of "teacher" can be attributed to the power that the experimenter had. Specifically, the experimenter can be said to have had which type of power:

A. legitimate
B. referent
C. coercive
D. expert
A. legitimate

French and Raven (1959) identified five types of social power: coercive, reward, expert, referent, and legitimate. In Milgram's studies, the experimenter had legitimate power; i.e., he was seen to be a legitimate authority figure in the context of the experiment. A person has referent power when others want to identify with that person. A person has coercive power when he/she has control of punishments. Finally, a person has expert power when he/she is believed to have superior knowledge or experience.
A Gestalt therapist would most likely ___________ a client's questions:

A. analyze
B. ignore
C. discourage
D. mimic
C. discourage

Gestalt therapists view questions as fostering intellectualization and masking true feelings. Thus, Gestalt therapists typically discourage their clients' questions.
The standard error of estimate is used to estimate:

A. the range within which an examinee's true predictor score is likely to fall given his obtained predictor score
B. the range within which an examinee's criterion score is likely to fall given his predictor
C. the range within which an examinee's true test score is likely to fall given the mean and standard deviation of the test distribution
D. the range within which an examinee's true criterion score is likely to fall given the mean and standard deviation of the criterion score distribution
B. the range within which an examinee's criterion score is likely to fall given his preictor score
College graduates score higher than high school graduates and high school dropouts on a test of achievement motivation. This is evidence that the test has good:

A. discriminant validity
B. content validity
C. construct validity
D. concurrent validity
C. construct validity

Construct validity is the extent to which a test measures the theoretical construct or trait it was designed to measure (e.g., achievement motivation, self-esteem). The ability of a test to discriminate between groups with different levels of this construct is one source of evidence of the test's construct validity.
Discriminant (divergent) validity
a method for establishing a measure's construct validity. A measure has discriminant validity when it does not correlate highly with measures designed to assess unrelated constructs.
Content validity
is of primary importance for tests that sample an examinee's knowledge of a given content domain (e.g, final exams, the psychology licensing test). Content validity is established primarily through the judgment of experts.
Concurrent validity
a type of criterion-related validity. A test has concurrent validity when it correlates highly with criterion scores obtained at about the same time that the test was administered. If you viewed educational status as a criterion, you might have chosen this alternative. However, there is no information in the question that suggests that the test is to be used to place people into criterion groups.
As the child (in the above question) begins calling the horse and cow by their correct names more consistently, his parents begin to whisper their "clues," then mouth the clues, and finally stop giving the child any clues whatsoever. This procedure is known as:

A. cueing
B. shaping
C. fading
D. thinning
C. fading
According to Kohlberg's moral development theory, children who are about ten years old will probably be in the second stage of the preconventional morality level. At this stage children act in accordance to rules because:

A. they feel that people should adhere to established rules
B. the consequences of their actions are desirable
C. being "good" helps them avoid punishment
D. "everyone else is doing it"
B. the consequences of their actions are desirable.

At this stage of moral development, children are aware of consequences but they do not have a good understanding of right and wrong. Kohlberg gives the example of a 10-year old boy who was asked about "being a good son." His response was, "be good to your father and he will be good to you."
Much of the research on behavioral techniques has demonstrated that techniques designed to reduce or eliminate a behavior are more effective when they are combined with techniques designed to increase alternative behaviors. This probably explains why __________ is often an effective intervention:

A. D.R.O.
B. response cost
C. covert sensitization
D. negative practice
Differential reinforcement for other behaviors not only uses extinction to eliminate a behavior but also reinforces the individual for alternative behaviors.
An industrial psychologist is asked to evaluate the selection techniques used by Company X. After observing the personnel manager interviewing job applicants, the psychologist notes that applicants who are well-dressed are hired more often than those who are not as well dressed, regardless of their qualifications. This is an example of which of the following:

A. halo effect
B. Hawthorne effect
C. behavioral contrast
D. reactance
A. halo effect

This is an example of the halo effect, a rater bias in which the rater allows a rating of a ratee on one dimension to influence ratings he/she makes of the ratee on unrelated dimensions. In this case, the personnel manager apparently allowed his/her "rating" of the individual's appearance to affect his/her ratings on other dimensions.
Hawthorne effect
The Hawthorne effect occurs when the behavior of research participants is altered because of the novelty of the research situation and the special attention they are receiving as research subjects.
With regard to attitude change, the "inoculation" model can be used to:

A. increase an individual's resistance to persuasion
B. reduce a communicator's anxiety prior to delivering a message to a hostile audience
C. distract an individual from a communicator's message
D. decrease an indivivdual's resistance to persuasion
A. increase an individual's resistance to persuasion

from the medical model. It is based on the assumption that a person will be better able to resist a persuasive communication when he/she has been "inoculated" against it. Inoculation involves providing weak arguments against a position and counterarguments refuting those arguments.
Trainability tests:
Trainability tests are similar to work samples except they are given to people who currently do not have sufficient skills, knowledge, or ability to perform the job, and they are used to determine if a job applicant is likely to benefit from training.
Schachter's finding that "misery loves miserable company" provides evidence for which of the following:

A. social impact theory
B. the overjustificatoin hypothesis
C. the notion of psychological reactance
D. social comparison theory
D. social comparison theory

Social comparison theory says that we reduce uncertainty about or validate our feelings, opinions, etc. by observing those of others in similar circumstances.
Research indicates that the nature of communication networks can affect worker satisfaction, group performance, and leadership effectiveness. For instance, when tasks are complex and unstructured:

A. a centralized communication network is associated with better group performance
B. a centralized communication network is associated with better group performance only if the group leader is authoritarian
C. a decentralized communication network is associated with better group performance
D. a decentralized communication network is associated with better group performance only if the group leader is authoritarian
C. a decentralized communication network is associated with better group performance

Much of the research on communication networks divides networks into two main types -- centralized and decentralized. The research indicates that decentralized networks, in which no one individual has greater access to information, are best for complex, unstructured tasks that have a number of different solutions. Centralized networks, on the other hand, are better for simple, structured tasks.
Delusion of reference
As defined in DSM-IV, a delusion of reference is a delusion "whose theme is that events, objects or other people in one's immediate environment have a particular or unusual significance." e.g. a woman thinks a radio program is being broadcast directly to her
Research on the "jigsaw classroom" supports the findings of:

A. Zimbardo's deindividuation study
B. Sherif's Robber's Cave study
C. Berkowitz' frustration-anxiety hypothesis
D. Ajzen and Fishbein's reasoned action theory
B. Sherif's Robber's Cave study

In a jigsaw classroom, students work together in teams in order to complete an assignment. The research has found that the jigsaw classroom helps reduce hostilities related to racial, ethnic, or cultural differences.

Sherif found that cooperation in achieving a superordinate goal reduced hostility between groups of boys.
Zimbardo's deindividuation study
This study found that people are more willing to act in antisocial ways when their identities are unknown.
Berkowitz' frustration-anxiety hypothesis
Berkowitz found that frustration leads to aggression, particularly in the presence of aggressive cues.
Ajzen and Fishbein's reasoned action theory
people consider two factors when deciding whether to behave in certain ways: their attitude toward the behavior and the subjective norms that apply to the situation.
In the F-ratio for the one-way ANOVA, the denominator term is reduced by:
The mean square within (MSW) is the denominator of the F-ratio and, as its name implies, is a measure of within-group variability.

Decreasing within-group variability decreases the denominator of the F-ratio. Within-gruop variability is a measure of error.
Job enrichment
a method for increasing job motivation and satisfaction. It involves redesigning a job so that it provides the employee with greater responsibility, autonomy, and challenge. However, studies suggest that there are individual differences with regard to acceptance of job enrichment. For example, young, well-educated employees are likely to respond favorably while employees preferring stability and security to responsibility are likely to respond unfavorably.
Scientific management
(I/O principle)
Scientific management proposes that employees are motivated primarily by economic self-interest and that they inherently avoid job responsibility and, therefore, require constant supervision and detailed rules.
Goal setting theory
While Edwin Locke (1968) considered his goal-setting theory to be applicable to all situations, the research suggests that it may apply better to certain tasks and certain people.

There is some evidence that the predictions of goal setting theory are more accurate for simple tasks and for people who are high in need for achievement (who are more likely to commit to goals).
Transactional Leader
Bernard Bass has distinguished between transactional and transformational leaders.

Transactional leader can be expected to abdicate responsibility and avoid decisions
Transformational Leader
More likely to communicate high expectations for performance.
Charismatic leader
More likely to act as a role model and be convinced of teh moral rightness of his/her beliefs.
When using the technique known as "inoculation," you are trying to:
make someone less susceptible to persuasion by providing her with arguments against her position and refutations of those arguments
An infant who has been holding a rattle suddenly is able to hold a spoon. In terms of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, this child is displaying:
Assimilation involves the incorporation of new knowledge into existing cognitive structures or schemes. The child in the question already knows how to hold a rattle, and she applies this existing cognitive structure to the task of holding a spoon.