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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
information technology
the study or use of systems, development, installation and implementation of computer systems
levels of familarity
1. discovery and awareness
2. understanding, can talk about
3. make decisions, influence
themes of IT
change, control, security, selection, "the Cloud"
computer architecture, 4 main functions (VonNuemann model)
1. imput/outpug (I/O)
2. memory
3. a control unit
4. an arithmetic login unit
program
a series of instructions stored in a computer's memory
input
data going from the user to computer, includes mouse and keyboard
output
devices used to transmit data from the computer's memory to the user, includes monitor and printer
RAM (Random Access Memory)
stores a program and data while a program is running. Also, a series of boxes/cells that each hold a certain amount of data.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
a chip that contains the control unit and the arithmitic logic unit
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
like a calculator, on the CPU chip
assembly language
a more English like language that tells the computer what to do
sign bit
the part of a binary code that tells if it's a positive or negative number
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 128 different characters, each with it's own binary code. a table that translates letters and characters into numbers.
unicode
a universal standard encoding for all languages
pixels
tiny picture dots laid out in a 2D grid
resolution
the number of pixels used to represent an image
File compression techniques
used to reduce image memory requirements without sacrificing significant picture quality, includes jpegs and gifs.
sampling
the process of measuring and recording voltage.
MP3
most common file compression technique
bit
the smallest source of data on a computer
byte
8 bits
compression
a system that finds patterns and replaces them with a shorter marker.
ex: 1101=#
encryption
compression plus a math equation or password (designed to be hard to defeat)
different computer forms
laptop, desktop, mini versions, tablet, netbook, nettop
system unit
the combination of the CPU, RAM, motherboard and storage.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
in charge and makes all decisions. If CPU doesn't work, nothing does. Contains the control unit and the arithmitic logic unit.
Analogy: Mama in Mama's kitchen
RAM (Random Access Memory)
stores a program and data while a program is running. A series of boxes (cells) that each hold a certain amount of data.
Analogy: the kitchen counter tops.
Motherboard or systemboard
analogy: the central nervous system
storage
like ram, but slower speed and higher capacity. Not the same thing as memory.
analogy: your pantry (or refrigerator) in the kitchen.
Abstraction
is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality. It doesn't matter if it's running off of a hard disk.
Caching
an example of abstraction. something you're storing that can run later. Size and speed of cache explain speed advances over CPU clock, disk speed, etc. Getting everything you need to store it away until you need it, kind of like rebuffering.
Virtual memory
an example of abstraction that isolates programs from each other and allow operating system to "move" that memory around. Allows multitasking. a "juggling" procedure.
System level software (Operating System)
maintains the system and lets you run your programs. Handles access to system resources including CPU, memory disk, input and display output, printer and networking. Also manages files and file systems. Ability to multitask.
the 2 levels of abstraction
1.kernel (gatekeeper)
2. shell (user interface, where the user interacts)
Device Driver
the thing that makes the computer talk to external devices and a bridge between the OS and the device
Firmware
OS running on the device itself (ex: printers, iOS and Android, TVS). Specific to a certain set of hardware.
Application level software
the programs you wan to run on your computer (music, databases, spreadsheets, etc)
Piracy
copyright infringement, stealing software.
Open source software
programs that include the source code for you to review, modify and share. These have their own liscensing agreements.
F/OSS or Free Open Source Software
software that comes and goes. Free but lots of potential problems. Various LInux distributions.
malware
the programs you don't want running on your computer, including viruses, worms, bots, zombie, botnet and spyware
patch
a newer software program used to fix a bug.
examples of malware
spam, phishing
Cathedral model
a closed source, highly commercial. Rigid and linear. More straightforward. For example, Google.
Bazaar model
open source, constantly changing, much less rigid. Less straightforward, easier for people with a certain amount of experience. For example, Linux.
the 2 forms of conservation
1. conserve the original
2. make a surrogate (copy) for access (photocopy, microfilm, digitization, etc)
stewardship
coming up with a plan to deal with disasters
Digitization, Advantages:
fidelity to original, fidelity from one copy to the next, increases access, saves space, user savings, no degradation when copied.
Digitization, Disadvantages
expensive (must be selective), legal constraints, rapidly changing technology, large amount of physical preparation, requires new forms of metadata.
3 challenges to digital preservation
1. Digital containers: you may have the media but do you have the player? Ex: 8-tracks, VHS
2. expensive postal service for services like Netflix
3. challenges with digital formats (obsolescence with file formats and systems, interfaces with other systems like Mac vs PC, unable to read older codes, files, etc.)
Sources of software
1. commercial (closed source, Cathedral)
2. open source
3. developed in-house (homegrown or homebrewed)
4. the Cloud and outsourcing
5. a hybrid
Dave's Dimensions of evaluation
1. control
2. community support
3. continuity (how long it lasts)
4. cost
5. quality
Writing a tech plan (Neil-Schuman way)
1. inventory
2. needs assessment
3. investigate options and opportunities
4. set priorities and make justifications
5. create a budget
6. develop a timeline
7. plan to evaluate
RFP (Request for Proposal)
a document that defines your needs and criteria for publishing, used to solicit bids/quotes for services from a variety of users.
best preservation technique
reversibility
Networks
2 or more computers linked together so that they can communicate and share data with each other. Can be connected through physical means (cords, wires, etc) or wireless connections with radio waves.
LAN
Local Area Network. Used in the same room or building
WAN
Wide area network, used in clusters of buildings, cities, huge networks, including the Internet.
router
a device that connects multiple LANS or WANS
switch
device that transmits data between computers (cables or wireless)
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
connects computers to the internet through phone modems, digital subscriber lines (DSL) and cable modems.
Protocols
sets of rules that computers use to communicate various things (email, file transmission, web page requests) through SMTP, FTP, HTTP, etc.
IP address
unique set of numbers for a webpage
domain name
grouped IP addresses (ex: .org, .com, .edu, .gov)
DNS (Domain Name System)
translating the IP address in a way that is transparent to the user, ie: converting from numbers to words: 160.36.56.70=www.utk.edu
packet
smaller chunks of info (for messages). All packets must arrive before message can be read.
Centrifugal
open source, Bazaar, edge-focused, flattened heirarchies.
Centripetal
closed source, Cathedral, establish status quo, center focused
OSI 7 Layer Model
a conceptual model to understand the components of networking, their roles and how they interact. Applies to all scales of networks.
OSI 7 Layer 1
Physical. Role: some sort of shared medium. Characteristics: bandwidth, latency (how long does it take to send/receive), symmetric and asymmetric connections, shared medium, data unit: bit.
OSI 7 Layer 2
Data link. The role is addressing, encoding/decoding information. Data unit: frame. Characteristics: point-to-point protocol (PPP) used for dialup modems, Ethernet.
OSI 7 Layer 3
Network. Roles: interconnecting networks, routing (organizing the data). Data unit: packet. Characteristics: Internet Protocol (IP), "logical address", zip codes and IP address
Components of IP communication
1. IP Address: unique for every computer on the internet.
2. Netmask address: defines the size of the subnet.
3. Gateway address: where the off subnet traffic goes
4. DNS resolver address: an IP address to send DNS resolution queries to.
Network Address Translation
a type of routing that takes your single Internet IP from your internet Service Provider and powers your whole LAN. Uses "private networks" and acts as a built-in firewall.
RFC (Request for Comments)
ways that geeks contact each other in informal ways about methods, rules, behaviors, research, etc. Open source.
OS Interfaces
the kernel, the shell (command line) and graphical windowed interfaces
SSH
a way to remotely connect to the GSLIS server
H:drive
Home drive. home directory, where documents and files are stored.
I:Drive
Internet accessible drive, for alternate storage, also for web publishing
IT Service heirarchy
1. AITS (the university throughout Illinois)
2. CITES (the campus one)
3. Moodle (GSLIS one)