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201 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomical position
standard position; body erect, feet apart, head/toes forward, arms at sides with palms forward
relating to head, neck, and trunk, axis of body
relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
pertaining to the forearm
pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
pertaining to the armpit
pertaining to the arm
pertaining to the cheek
pertaining to the wrist
pertaining to the neck region
pertaining to the hip
pertaining to the leg
pertaining to the fingers or toes
pertaining to the forehead
pertaining to the big toe
pertaining to the groin
pertaining to the breast
pertaining to the chin
pertaining to the nose
pertaining to the mouth
pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)
pertaining to the palm of the hand
pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
pertaining to the foot
pertaining to the pelvis region
fibular (peroneal)
pertaining to the side of the leg
pertaining to the thumb
pertaining to the genital region
pertaining to the region of the breastbone
pertaining to the ankle
pertaining to the chest
pertaining to the navel
pertaining to the point of the shoulder
pertaining to the heel of the foot
pertaining to the head
pertaining to the back
pertaining to the buttocks
pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
pertaining to the hand
pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
pertaining to the ear
pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
pertaining to the sole of the foot
pertaining to the back of the knee
pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
pertaining to the area of the spinal column
towards the head / away from head
proceeds 1st in locomotion / follows anterior in locomotion
towards the middle / towards the side
cephalad (cranial)/caudal
used mainly with animals: towards head / towards tail
used mainly with animals: towards the back / towards the belly
close to sight of attachment / away from sight of attachment
superficial (external)/deep (internal)
towards the surface / away from surface
sagittal plane
divides body into right and left (could be midsagittal or parasagittal)
frontal plane
divides body into front and back
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior parts (sections are commonly called cross sections)
dorsal cavity
subdivided into cranial and vertebral cavities; contains brain enclosed within the skull, spinal cord/vertebral column
ventral body cavity
subdivided into thoracic (superior), abdominopelvic (inferior to diaphragm), and pelvic cavities; contains heart/lungs, stomach/intestines/liver/other organs, and reproductive organs/bladder/rectum
serosa (serosa membrane)
moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities
parietal serosa
part of double-layered membrane that lines the walls of the ventral body cavity
visceral serosa
part of the double-layered membrane that lines the outer surfaces of organs within the ventral body cavity
serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs
serosa enclosing the lungs
serosa around the heart
umbilical region
centermost region; includes umbilicus
epigastric region
immediately superior to the umbilical region; overlies most of the stomach
hypogastric (pubic) region
immediately inferior to the umbilical region; encompasses the pubic area
iliac (inguinal) regions
lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones
lumbar regions
between the ribs and the flaring portiongs of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region
hypochondriac regions
flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs
oral cavity
mouth; contains tounge and teeth; continuous with rest of digestive tube, which opens to the exterior at the anus
nasal cavity
within and posterior to the nose; part of the passages of the respiratory system
orbital cavities
orbits in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
middle ear cavities
lies just medial to ear drum and carved into the skull; contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibs. to the organ of hearing in the inner ears
synovial cavities
joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body, such as those between vertebrae and knee/hip joints
4 primary tissue types
epithelium, connective, nervous, muscle
epithelial tissue (epithelium)
covers surfaces; covers the external body surface, lines its cavities and tubules, generally marks off "insides" from outsides; glands are classified as epithelium. FUNCTIONS: protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception
epithelia are classified to 2 criteria
arrangement or relative number of layers and cell shape
basement membrane
extracellular material consisting of a basal lamina secreted by epithelial cells and a reticular lamina secreted by underlying connective tissue cells
simple epithelia
one-layer attached to basement membrane
stratified epithelia
two or more layers of cells
pseudostratified epithelium
actually simple columnar, but gives false appearance of being stratified because cells vary in height and nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane; often ciliated
transitional epithelium
peculiar stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded, "plump" cells w/ ability to slide over one another to allow organ to be stretched; found only in urinary system organs subjected to periodic distension (e.g. bladder)
endocrine glands
made from epithelial cells; lose their surface connections (duct) as they develop; secretions (HORMONES) extrude into blood stream or lymphatic vessels that weave through the glands
exocrine glands
retain ducts; sections empty through these ducts to an epithelial surface (e.g. sweat/oil glands, liver, pancreas); both external and internal
simple squamous epithelium
DESCRIPTION: single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central neclei and sparse cytoplasm; simplest of epithelia
FUNCTION: allows passage of material by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
LOCATION: kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)
simple columnar epithelium
DESCRIPTION: single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
FUNCTION: absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action
LOCATION: nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus
stratified squamous epithelium
DESCRIPTION: thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers
FUNCTION: protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
LOCATION: nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane
connective tissue
found in all parts of the body as discrete structures or as part of various body organs; MOST ABUNDANT and WIDELY DISTRIBUTED
FUNCTION: protect, support, binding together other tissues of the body, repair of all body tissues
TYPES: bone/osseous, dense (ligaments and tendons), areolar, adipose, hematopoietic, scar
CHARACTERISTICS: rich supply of blood vessels (w/ few exceptions - cartilages, tendons, and ligaments), composed of many types of cells, and composed of a great deal of noncellular, nonliving material (matrix) between the cells of the tissue
extracellular matrix
produced by the cells then extruded; primarily responsible for strength assoc. w/ conn. tissue, but there is variation (e.g. adipose tissue has lots of cells, bone and cartilage have larger amounts of matrix)
2 components: ground substances and fibers
ground substance
composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteogylcans; may be liquid, semisolid, gel-like, or very hard; functions as a molecular sieve (medium) through which nutrients and dissolved substs. can diffuse b/t the blood capillaries and the cells
matrix fibers
provide support; includes collagen (white - MOST ABUNDANT), elastic (yellow), and reticular (fine collagen); hinders diffusion; makes ground substs. less pliable
areolar connective tissue
soft packaging material that cushins and protects body organs; considered the model or prototype of the connective tissues; contain all 3 varieties of fibers
4 types of adult connective tissue
all have large amounts of matrix:
1. connective tissue proper (areolar, adipose, reticular, and dense connective tissues)
2. cartilage
3. bone
4. blood

-all derive from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme
connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose
DESCRIPTION: matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets
FUNCTION: provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs
LOCATION: under skin; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts
cartilage: hyaline
DESCRIPTION: amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae
LOCATION: forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx
cartilage: fibrocartilage
DESCRIPTION: matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate
FUNCTION: tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
LOCATION: intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint
bone (osseous tissue)
DESCRIPTION: hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae; very well vascularized
FUNCTION: bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
blood (tissue)
DESCRIPTION: red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
FUNCTION: transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances
LOCATION: contained within blood vessels
muscle tissue
highly specialized to contract and produces most types of body movement; cells tend to be enlongated; 3 types (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)
skeletal muscle
"meat" or flesh of body; DESCRIPTION: long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations
FUNCTION: voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control
LOCATION: in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
cardiac muscle
DESCRIPTION: branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that fit together at specialized junctions (intercalated discs - allows c.m. to act as a unit)
FUNCTION: as it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control
LOCATION: the walls of the heart
smooth muscle (visceral muscle)
DESCRIPTION: spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; NO striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets
FUNCTION: propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control
LOCATION: mostly in the walls of hollow organs (digestive and urinary tract organs, uterus, blood vessels)
nervous tissue
composed of two major cell populations (neuroglia and neurons); those cells that are most often association with nervous system functioning
1 of 2 cell populations in nervous tissue; special supporting cells that protect, support, and insulate the more delicate neurons
1 of 2 major cell populations of nervous tissue; highly specialized to receive stimuli (irritability) and to conduct waves of excitation, or impulses, to all parts of the body (conductivity); structure contains nucleus-containing cell body with cytoplasm drawn out into long extensions (cell processes) which allows a single neuron to conduct an impulse over relatively long distances
2 regions of the skin
1. superficial epidermis - composed of epithelium
2. dermis - an underlying connective tissue

-the layers are firmly "cemented" together along an undulating border
the avascular epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting of 4 distinct cell types (keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans' cells, merkel cells) and 4-5 distinct layers (but know only two: stratum basale and stratum corneum)
keratinocytes (keratin cells)
MOST ABUNDANT epidermal cells; function mainly to produce keratin fibrils (keratin is a fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities); tightly connected to each other by desmosomes
spidery black cells that produce the brown-to-black pigment called melanin; melanin provides a protective pigment umbrella over the nuclei of the cells in the deeper epidermal layers (which shields genetic material from damaging effects of UV); [] of melanin in one spot is called a freckle
langerhans' cells
aka epidermal dendritic cells; phagocytic cells (macrophages) play a role in immunity
merkel cells
occasional spiky hemispheres that, in conjunction with sensory nerve endings, form sensitive touch receptors called Merkel discs, located at the epidermal-dermal junction
stratum basale (basal layer)
single row of cells immediately adjacent to the dermis; cells constantly undergoing mitotic cell division to produce millions of new cells daily, hence its alternate name stratum germinativum; 10-20% of the cells are melanocytes which thread their processes through this and the adjacent layers of keratinocytes
stratum corneum (horny layer)
outermost epidermal layer; consists of 20-30 cell layers; accounts for the bulk of the epidermal thickness; cells are dead and their flattened scalelike remnants are fully keratinized; constantly rubbing off and being replaced by division of deeper cells
dense, irregular connective tissue w/ 2 regions (papillary and reticular areas); varies in thickness; also contains fibroblasts, adipose cells, various types of macrophages, and other cell types; abundant dermal blood supply allows skin to play role in regulation of body temp; also richly provided with lymphatic vessels and nerve supply
papillary layer
more superficial dermal region composed of areolar connective tissue; very uneven w/ fingerlike projections from its superior surface (dermal papillae - which attach it to the epidermis); produce fingerprints (unique patterns of epidermal ridges); abundant capillary networks furnish nutrients for the epidermal layers and allow heat to radiate to the skin surface; pain and touch receptors (meissner;s corpuscles) are found here; heavily invested with collagenic and elastic fibers
reticular layer
deepest skin layer; composed of dense irregular connective tissue and contains many arteries and veins, sweat and sebaceous glands, and pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles); heavily invested with collagenic and elastic fibers
skin color
result of amount of melanin, carotene, and degree of oxygenation of the blood; may be an importance diagnostic tool
erythema (diagnosis from skin color)
red skin color - caused by 1st degree burns, increased blood pressure
anemia (diagnosis from skin color)
pale color
hypoxia (diagnosis from skin color)
cyanotic (blue)
hepatitis/jaundice (diagnosis from skin color)
orange color
addison's disease
bronzing of the skin
1st degree burns
epidermis (e.g. sunburn)
2nd degree burns
extends into dermis (e.g. blisters)
3rd degree burns
both layers of the skin are destroyed
accessory organs of skin
cutaneous glands, hair, nails (all derivatives of the epidermis); reside in the dermis; originate from the stratum basale and grown downward into the deeper skin regions
hornlike derivatives of the epidermis
body of the nail
visible attached portion
free edge of the nail
portion of nail that grows out away from the body
root of the nail
part that is embedded in the skin and adheres to an epithelial nail bed
nail folds
skin folds that overlap the borders of the nail
thick proximal nail fold commonly called the cuticle
nail bed
extension of the stratum basale beneath the nail
nail matrix
the thickened proximal part of the nail bed containing germinal cells responsible for nail growth; as matrix produces nail cells, they become heavily keratinized and die; nails, like hairs, are mostly nonliving material
lunula of the nail
proximal region of the thickened nail matrix which appears as a white crescent; nails are transparent and nearly colorless everywhere else but appear pink because of blood supply in the underlying dermis
found over entire body surface except thick-skinned areas, parts of external genitalia, nipples, and the lips; consists of a medulla (central region surrounded first by the cortex and then by a protective cuticle); color is a manifestation of the amount and kind of melanin pigment w/in the hair cortex;
-root-portion enclosed w/in follicle;
-shaft-portion projected from the scalp surface
-hair bulb-collection of well-nourished germinal epithelial cells at basal end of follicle; as daughter cells are pushed further away from growing region, the die and become keratinized;

bulk of hair shaft is dead material
structure formed from both epidermal and dermal cells;
-inner epithelial root sheath-consists of internal and external parts that are enclosed by thickened basement membrane and connective tissue root sheath (which is essentially dermal tissue);
-papilla-small nipple of dermal tissue that protrudes into the hair bulb from the connective tissue sheath and provides nutrition to the growing hair
arrector pili muscle
small bands of smooth muscle cells connect each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis; when contracted (during cold or fright), slanted hair follicle is pulled upright, dimpling the skin surface with goose bumps; activity also exerts pressure on the sebaceous glands surrounding the follicle, causing a small amount of sebum to be released
cutaneous glands
fall primarily into 2 categories:
1. sebaceous glands
2. sweat glands

-cutaneous pertains to skin
product of sebaceous glands; mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a lubricant to keep the skin soft and moist (also keeps hair from becoming brittle)
-blackhead - accumulation of dried sebum, bacteria, and melanin from epithelial cells in the oil duct
sebaceous (oil) glands
found nearly all over the skin, except for palms and soles; ducts usually empty into a hair follicle, but some open directly on skin surface; product of gland = sebum; become particularly active during puberty when more male hormones (androgens) are produced, thus skin tends to become oilier during this period
-acne is an active infection of these glands
sweat (sudoriferous) glands
widely distributed exocrine glands; outlets are epithelial openings called pores; categorized by composition of their secretions (eccrine and apocrine glands)
eccrine glands
aka merocrine sweat glands; distributed all over; produce clear perspiration consisting of water, salts, and urea; under control of nervous system results in body's heat regulating apparatus; secrete perspiration when ext. temp is high; when evaporated, excess body heat is carried with it; evaporation of greater amounts provides an efficient means of dissipating body heat when the capillary cooling system is not sufficient or is unable to maintain body temp homeostasis
apocrine glands
found predominantly in axillary and genital areas; secrete milky protein-and-fat rich substance (also containing water, salts, urea) that is an excellent nutrient medium for microorganisms typ. found on skin; may be analogous to the pheromone-producing scent glands of other animals because they enlarge and recede with phases of female menstrual cycles
skeleton (functions)
1. support and protect
2. provides system of levers w/ which the skeletal muscles work to move the body
3. store lipids and many minerals
4. red marrow cavities provide a site for hematopoiesis
axial skeleton
1 of 2 divisions of the skeleton; consists of the bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
appendicular skeleton
1 of 2 divisions of the skeleton; consists of linbs or appendages
kinds of osseous tissue bone is composed of
1. compact; smooth and homogeneous
2. spongy; small bars of bone w/s lots of open space
long bones
longer than they are wide; generally consists of a shaft w/ heads at either end; composed predominantly of compact bone
short bones
typically cubed shaped; contain more spongy bone than compact bone
flat bones
generally thin; consists of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone; many are curved (like bones of the skull)
irregular bones
those which do not fall in any of the other 3 categories
sesamoid bones
special types formed in tendons (e.g. patella)
wormian/sutural bones
tiny bones b/t cranial bones; not included in 206 bone count
bone markings
reveal where bones form joints with other bones, where skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached, and where blood vessels and nerves passed
-consist of 2 categories: projections and processes
fibrous membrane covering of bone; many penetrate into the bone
hardness and flexibility of bone are due to...
inorganic calcium salts deposited in the ground substance and organic elements of the matrix, (particularly the collagen fibers) respectively
central(Haversian)canal of bone
run parallel to the axis; carries blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels through the bony matrix
mature bones cells loacted in lacunae
chambers that enclose osteocytes
osteon (Haversian) system
a central canal and all the concentric lamellae surring it
tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella
perforating (Volkmann's) canals
canals which run into the compact bone and marrow cavity at right angles to the shaft; they complete the communication pathway b/t the bone interior and external surface
endochondral ossification
uses hyaline cartilage "bones" as patterns for bone formation
7 types of cartilage and their structure/function
1. articular-cover the bone ends at movable joints
2. costal-connecting the ribs to the sternum
3. laryngeal-largely constructs the larynx
4. tracheal/bronchial-reinforce other passageways of the respiratory system
5. nasal-support the external nose
6. intervertebral-separate and cushin bones of the spine
7. cartilage supporting the external ear
what makes up cartilage tissue?
primarily water; is fairly resilient; contains NO nerves or blood vessels
3 cartilage tissue types
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage
most abundant cartilage; looks like frosted glass; provides sturdy support when some resilience or "give"; chondrocytes appear spherical and collagen fibers are the only fiber in the matrix
elastic cartilage
"hyaline cartilage with more elastic fibers"; more flexibe; tolerates repeated bending; e.g ears and epiglottis
consists of rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers; always found where hyaline cartilage joings a tendon or ligament; can withstand heavy compression; e.g intervertebral discs and knee joint
2 sets of bones that make up the skull
cranium (protect brain tissue) and facial (form base for facial muscles)
articulations = ? and perform 2 functions
1. hold bones together
2. allow the rigid skeletal system some flexibility so that gross body movements can occur
3 types of joints based on FUNCTION
1. synarthroses-immovable joints (e.g skull (the sutures))
2. amphiarthroses-slightly movable joints (e.g symphysis pubis)
3. diarthroses-freely movable joints (e.g all synovial joints)
3 types of joints based on STRUCTURE
1. fibrous-joined by fibrous tissue; no cavity present; most are synarthrotic and permit virtually no movement; 2 major types: sutures and syndesmoses
2. cartilaginous-articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of this cartilage; no joint cavity; 2 major types: synchondroses and symphyses; e.g sync.-b/t ribs, symp.-pubic area
3. synovial-contains capsule w/ synovial fluid; allows for more complex movements (all are diarthroses); 6 TYPES
syn.jnt. 1 - plane (gliding)
flat, slightly curved; allows sliging movements in 1 or 2 planes (e.g between carpals)
syn.jnt. 2 - hinge
rounded process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another; usually allows flexion and extension (e.g b/t humerus and radius/ulna, elbow)
syn.jnt. 3 - pivot
rounded/conical surface of one bonde articulates w/ shallow depression or foramen in another bone; allow uniaxial rotation (e.g atlas & axis, radius & ulna proximal ends)
syn.jnt. 4 - condoyloid (ellipsoidal)
oval condyle of one bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone, allowing biaxial movement (e.g b/t metacarpals & proximal phalanges)
syn.jnt. 5 - saddle
articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped; artic. surface of one bone is convex, and reciprocal surface is concave (e.g only 2 in the only body: R&L between trapezium; metacarpal #1)
syn.jnt. 6 - ball and socket
ball-shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another; miltiaxial joints, allows movement in all directions and pivotal rotation (e.g b/t femur and acetabulum, humerus and glenoid cavity)
decreasing angle at a joint; reduces distance b/t the 2 bones
increasing angle at a joint and distance b/w two bones or parts of the body; hyperextension can occur
movement away from midline (generally on the frontal plane or the fanning movement of fingers or toes)
movement towards the midline (opposite of abduction)
movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis w/o lateral or medial displacement
a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction (e.g shoulder); proximal end remains stationary while distal end moves in a circle
movement of palm of hand from anterior or upward-facing position to posterior or downward-facing position
movement of palm of hand from a posterior position to an anterior position; "holding a bowl of soup"
movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of foot
movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of foot; opposite of inversion
movement of ankle joint in a dorsal direction (e.g standing on one's heels)
plantar flexion
movement of ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward (e.g standing on one's toes or pointing toes)