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151 Cards in this Set

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The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
Data mining
Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behavior and guide decision making.
Data-mining tool
A logical collection of information—gathered from many different operational databases—that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.
Data warehouse
Charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time.
Disaster recovery cost curve
A detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood.
Disaster recovery plan
In the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
Entity
extranet A private network that uses the Internet and the In the relational database model is a collection of similar entities.
Entity class
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables.
Foreign key
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
Forward integration
Stores related information in terms of predefined categorical relationships in a "tree-like" fashion.
Hierarchical database
A separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after the disaster and resume business.
Hot site
A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
Information cleansing or scrubbing
A measure of the quality of information.
Information integrity
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other.
Integration
The rules that help ensure the quality of information.
Integrity constraint
Focuses on how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs.
Logical view
Used by a network installation tool to allocate and track network resources.
Network database
The rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints.
Operational integrity constraint
Measures how quickly a system performs acertain process or transaction.
Performance
The physical storage of information on astorage device such as a hard disk.
Physical view
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table.
Primary key
Allows users to graphically design the answers to specific questions.
Query-by-example (QBE) tool
Immediate, up-to-date information.
Real-time information
Provides real-time information in response to query requests.
Real-time system
The ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup.
Recovery
The duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places.
Redundancy
A type of database that stores its information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
Relational database model
Allows users to define formats for reports along with what information they want to see in the report.
Report generator
Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands.
Scalability
Encompasses all organizational information and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks.
Analytical information
Includes tools for creating visually appealing and easy-to-use applications.
Application generation component
Characteristics or properties of an entity class.
Attribute
An exact copy of a system's information.
Backup
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
Backward integration
The rules that enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than operational integrity constraints.
Business-critical integrity constraint
A separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after the disaster.
Cold site
The common term for the representation of multidimensional information.
Cube
Provides tools for managing the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup, recovery, security, and performance.
Data administration component
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses).
Database
Software through which users and application programs interact with a database.
Database management system (DBMS)
Helps create and maintain the data dictionary and the structure of the database.
Data definition component
A file that stores definitions of information types, identifies the primary and foreign keys, and maintains the relationships among the tables.
Data dictionary
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete information in a database.
Data manipulation component
Contains a subset of data warehouse information.
Data mart
Allows users to see the contents of a database, make any required changes, perform simple sorting, and query the database to find the location of specific information.
View
Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks.
Transactional information
A standardized fourthgeneration query language found in most DBMSs.
Structured query language (SQL)
Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers.
Analytical CRM
Simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information.
Association detection
A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible.
Cluster analysis
Involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated information.
Consolidation
Models information to support managers and business professionals during the decisionmaking process.
Decision support system (DSS)
Integrates information from multiple components and present it in a unified display.
Digital dashboard
Enables users to get details, and details of details, of information.
Drill-down
The conducting of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners.
E-business
Represents a new approach to middleware by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors.
Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware
A specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization.
Executive information system (EIS)
Computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems.
Expert system
Predictions made on the basis of time-series information.
Forecast
Finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output.
Goal-seeking analysis
A special-purpose knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users.
Intelligent agent
Various commercial applications of artificial intelligence.
Intelligent system
Analyzes such items as Web sites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services.
Market basket analysis
Different types of software which sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications.
Middleware
A simplified representation or abstraction of reality.
Model
A category of AI that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works.
Neural network or artificial neural network
Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
Operational CRM
Occurs when a Web site can know enough about a person's likes and dislikes that it can fashion offers that are more likely to appeal to that person.
Personalization
The study of the impact that changes in one (or more) parts of the model have on other parts of the model.
Sensitivity analysis
Software that will search several retailer Web sites and provide a comparison of each retailer's offerings including price and availability.
Shopping bot
The ability to look at information from different perspectives.
Slice-and-dice
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency.
Time-series information
Checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution.
What-if analysis
Characteristics or properties of an entity class.
Attribute
Expresses the specific number of entity occurrences associated with one occurrence of the related entity.
Cardinality
Entities that exist to represent the relationship between two other entities.
Composite entity
A rule to which some elements in a database must adhere.
Constraint
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses).
Database
Software through which users and application programs interact with a database.
Database management system
A file that stores definitions of information types, identifies the primary and foreign keys, and maintains the relationships among the tables.
Data dictionary
A formal way to express data relationships to adatabase management system (DBMS).
Data model
In the relational database model is a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
Entity
Ensures that each entity instance has a unique attribute value that distinguishes it from every other entity instance.
Entity identifier
A constraint on a relation that states that no part of a primary key can be null.
Entity integrity
A technique for documenting the relationships between entities in a database environment.
Entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
Each field in a table contains different information.
First normal form (1NF)
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables.
Foreign key
An operation that combines two relations by matching rows based on values in columns in the two tables.
Join
A relationship between two entities in which an instance of entity A can be related to zero, one, or more instances of entity B and entity B can be related to zero, one, or more instances of entity A.
Many-to-many relationship (M:N)
Having the potential to contain more than one value for an attribute at any given time.
Multi-value
The theoretical rules that the design of a relation must meet.
Normal form
The process of placing attributes into tables that avoid the problems associated with poor database design.
Normalization
A relationship between two entities, in which an instance of entity A can be related to zero, one, or more instances of entity B and entity B can be related to only one instance of entity A.
One-to-many relationship (1:M)
A relationship between two entities in which an instance of entity A can be related to only one instance of entity B and entity B can be related to only one instance of entity A.
One-to-one relationship (1:1)
The underlying physical storage, which ismanaged by the DBMS.
Physical schema
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table.
Primary key
States that every non-null foreign key value must match an existing primary key value.
Referential integrity
A type of database that stores its information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables.
Relational database model
A completed entity-relationship diagram representing the overall, logical plan of a database.
Schema
The relation is in first normal form and all nonkey attributes are functionally dependent on the entire primary key.
Second normal form (2NF)
Having only a single value of each attribute of an entity at any given time.
Single-value
The relation is in second normal formand there are no transitive dependencies.
Third normal form (3NF)
An entity that cannot exist in the database unless a related instance of another entity is present and related to it.
Weak entity
Helps organizations reduce their investment in inventory, while improving customer satisfaction through product availability.
Collaborative demand planning
Allows an organization to reduce the cost and time required during the design process of a product.
Collaborative engineering
The average amount of inventory held to satisfy customer demands between inventory deliveries.
Cycle inventory
Measure the impact IT has on business processes and activities including customer satisfaction, conversion rates, sell-through increases, etc.
Effectiveness IT metric
Measure the performance of the IT system itself including throughput, speed, availability, etc.
Efficiency IT metric
Organizations receive or request information.
Pull technology
Organizations send information.
Push technology
Includes extra inventory held in the event demand exceeds supply.
Safety inventory
Applies technology to the activities in the order life cycle from inquiry to sale.
Selling chain management
Consists of all parties involved, directly or ndirectly, in the procurement of a product or raw material.
Supply chain
Enables an organization to react more quickly to resolve supply chain issues.
Supply chain event management (SCEM)
Software that automates the different steps and stages of the supply chain.
Supply chain execution (SCE)
Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability.
Supply chain management (SCM)
Software that uses advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory.
Supply chain planning (SCP)
Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers.
Analytical CRM
A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agents.
Automatic call distribution
Accesses organizational databases that track similar issues or questions and automatically generate the details to the CSR who can then relay them to the customer.
Call scripting system
Buttons allow customers to click on a button and talk with a CSR via the Internet.
Click-to-talk
Customer service representatives (CSRs) answer customer inquiries and respond to problems through a number of different customer touchpoints.
Contact center
Provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment.
Contact management system
Selling additional products or services to a customer.
Cross-selling
Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Provides employees with a subset of CRM applications available through a Web browser.
Employee relationship management (ERM)
Directs customers to use touch-tone phones or keywords to navigate or provide information.
Interactive voice response (IVR)
Compiles customer information from a variety of sources and segment the information for different marketing campaigns.
List generator
Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers.
Operational CRM
Targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales.
Opportunity management system
Focuses on keeping vendors satisfied by managing alliance partner and reseller relationships that provide customers with the optimal sales channel.
Partner relationship management (PRM)
Automatically dials outbound calls and when someone answers, the call is forwarded to an available agent.
Predictive dialing
A system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process.
Sales force automation (SFA)
Automates each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all of their accounts.
Sales management system
Focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects, which optimizes supplier selection.
Supplier relationship management (SRM)
Increasing the value of a sale.
Up-selling
Allows customers to use the Web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems.
Web-based self-service system
Manages accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.
Accounting and finance component
Information that people use to support their decision-making efforts.
Business intelligence
Traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations.
Core ERP component
Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
The conducting of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners.
E-business
Manages the transportation and storage of goods.
E-logistics
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems) so that employees can make enterprisewide decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operations.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
The B2B purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet.
E-procurement
The extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.
Extended ERP component
Tracks employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities.
Human resource component
Handles the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control.
Production and materials management component
Enables an organization to react more quickly to resolve supply chain issues.
Supply chain management (SCM)