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34 Cards in this Set

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What do E selectins bind to and where are they found?
Found on surface of endo cells
Bind to Sialyl Lewis X
What do P selectins bind to?
Where are P selectins found?
Sialyl Lewis X
Surface of endo cells
What do L selectins bind to?
Where are they found?
Found on neutrophils
Bind to GlyCam-1
What do integrins bind to?
Ig-family adhesion molecules (ICAM/VCAM)
Examples of integrins
LFA-1
MAC-1
VLA-4
Examples of Ig-family adhesion molecules
ICAM
VCAM
Role of selectins
rolling of WBC
Role of integrins/Ig-family adhesion molecules?
Adhesion of WBC to BV
What is PECAM? Where is it found?
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molcules 1
found on WBC and endo --> transmigration through endo
WHat molecules are chemotactic for neutrophils? (7)
products from bacteria
C5a
HETE
LTB4
Kallikrein
Fibrinogen
PDGF
What is Kallikrein? What is its function?
product of factor XIIa-mediated conversion of prekallikrein

Chemotactic for neutrophils
What is PAF chemotactic for?
Eosinophils
What is TGF-beta chemotactic for?
macrophages and fibroblasts
Which cells are the most important phagocytic cells?
Neutrophils
Monocyte-macrophages
What is fibronectin chemotactic for?
fibroblasts
endo cells
what are the 2 ways that phagocytes kill ingested microbes
o2-dependent microbial killing
o2-independent
what biochemical pathway does phagocytosis initiate?
HMP --> oxidative burst and supplying e- to NADPH oxidase in phagosomal membrane
NADPH oxidase reaction? Catalyzed by?
O2 --> O2- --> H2O2 + Cl --> HOCL (last rxn catalyzed by MPO)
which form of intracellular microbial killing is most effective and efficient?
O2 dependent
What does HOCl do to microbes?
disrupts cell wall
What are the 5 ways histamine is released from mast cells and basophils?
binding of Ag to basophil and mast cell membrane bound IgE
C3a and C5a
Heat and cold
IL-1
Factors from neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets
Other than mast cells and basophils, where else is histamine released from? What is the trigger?
platelets (via platelet aggregation)
PAF, endo injury, and thrombosis
What does PAF do?
Where is it derived from?
Derived from all WBC except for lymphos
Activates and aggregates platelets, with release of histamine and 5HT
Causes vasoactive and brochospastic effects and activates arachidonic acid metabolism
What are the different things that kallikrein activates?
Clotting cascade (intrinsic)
Fibrinolytic system (activates plasmin, which activates complement - plamin needed from C3 --> C3a conversion); plasmin --> fibrin --> increased permeability of vasculature
Which cells are hte mononuclear cells?
monocytes/macrophages
dendritic cells
examples of granulocytes
PMNLs
basophils
mast cells
eosinophils
what are the precursors to active Ig secreting cells
B cells (which make the plasma cellS)
what does c4a do in complement?
activates phagocytic cells to increase phagocytosis
Which part of complement acts directly on neutrophls?

what action does it have?
c5a (NOT c3a)
activates vascular endo
what other cells are affectd by c5a?
phagocytic clels (increase phago)
endo cells (activate phagos)
neutrophils (activate vascular endo)
mast cells (atrracts and activates neutrophils, and mast cell degran)
what does c3a act on?
phagocytic cells (increased phago)
endo cells (activates phagos)
mast cells (activates vasc endo)
how do NK cells detect pathogens?
they can see if cells are self or foreign
NK cells can recognize AB coated cells and can lyse them
They have receptors that recognize C3b and C4b to opsonize
Can recognize stress induced proteins
How does NK cell ID infected and healthy cells?
NK cells have killer activation recptor (KAR)that binds to molecules that appear on stressed cells, providing a "kill signal"
Kill inhibitory receptors (KIR) look for the MHC I and if there are enough of them (they can be reduced in infection) then NK won't kill cell
KIR has to bind few MHC in order to kill the infected cells
What do interferon alpha and beta do?
they stimulate synth of host cell proteins that can inhibit viral replication
they also spread the word that there is an invasion going on