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145 Cards in this Set

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What diagnostic test will provide a definitive diagnosis (clearly established diagnosis) of campylobacteriosis?
Culture
Is there a risk of pet owners getting campylobacteriosis from their pets with diarrhea?
YES
What is the most common, especially in healthy animals, Clostridium
perfringens strain?
Type A
What is the best interpretation of PCR results positive for Salmonella in a
feces sample?
merely indicates the presence of Salmonella in feces
Morphological Characteristics; Clostridium perfringens
* Gram positive rod shaped bacillus
O2 Requirements: Clostridium perfringens
* anaerobic
Does Clostridium perfringens form spores?
*YES- SPORE FORMING
Is Clostridium perfringens considered a normal GI inhabitant?
* YES- Normal GI inhabitant
4 steps of C. perfringens enteropathy
1. Enterotoxin production
2. Interaction with receptors
3. Membrane permeability alteration
4. Inflammation and Diarrhea
C. perfringens has the ability to produce what type of toxin
Enterotoxin
How many diseases and healthy dogs/cats are positive on PCR for C. perfringens?
Up to 45%

* PCR positive sample will need to be followed up with Elisa
How many diseases and healthy dogs/cats are positive on enterotoxin Elisa for C. perfringens?
Only a minor proportion (6.8%)
Morphological characteristics of Campylobacter spp.
Thermophillic, gram negative, curved rods

* Appearance of "seagull" wings
What Campylobacter species is most associated with campylobacteriosis in humans?
C. jejuni
Clinical signs of campylobacteriosis in humans
* Acute watery diarrhea (frequently bloody)

* abdominal pain

* Fever 2-5 days after exposure
Mortality rate of campylobacteriosis in humans
* LOW- virtually all persons infected wth c. jejuni will recover without any specific treatment

* Approx. 1 in 1000 cases lead to Guillain Barre syndrome (paralysis, intensive care)
3 post-infection risks of campylobacteriosis in humans
1. Guillain Barre syndrome
2. IBD
3. IBD
How is campylobacter transmitted to dogs and cats
By contact with infected birds
During what season in campylobacter transmission most common in dogs and cats
Summer
What age group of dogs and cats are most susceptible to campylobacteriosis
Young (less than 6 months)
4 risk factors associated with campylobacteriosis in cats and dogs
1. Concurrent GI infections
2. Immunosuppression
3. Poor hygenic conditions
4. Antibiotic therapy
5 clinical signs associated with campylobacteriosis in cats and dogs
1. Acute diarrhea (blood,mucus)
2. Chronic ileitis, colitis
3. Anorexia
4. Fever
5. Vomiting
3 diagnostic tests for campylobacteriosis in cats and dogs
1. Fecal smear (hard to distinguish from other microbes)

2. Culture

3. Various PCR assays
What campylobacter species is most commonly found in cats
C. helveticus

* No clear association with health status
What campylobacter species is most commonly found in dogs
C. upsaliensis
Is C. jejuni common in dogs and cats?
No it is rare- but should still be considered a zoonotic risk
Genotype of Giardia that is dog specific?
Giardia duodenalis C,D

(sometimes the A,B (host specific for humans) can affect dogs)
Genotype of Giardia that is cat specific?
Giardia duodenalis F

(sometimes the A,B (host specific for humans) can affect cats)
Genotype of Giardia that is cattle specific?
Giardia duodenalis E
When does clinical disease of giardia occur?
5 to 16 days after cyst ingestion
Is giardia an invasive parasite?
NO: it is a non-invasive parasite
pathogenesis of Giardia duodenalis
* Attaches to the intestinal lining where it feeds on mucus and other secretions

* prevents the host from absorbing water or nutrients
How do the giardia trophozoites cause nutrient malassimilation in the small intestine?
* Cause damage to microvilli

* Infiltration of inflammatory cells

* increased enterocyte turnover

* loss of brush border enzymes
Clinical signs of Giardia
* Predominatly ACUTE small bowel diarrhea

* Less frequent: weight loss, vomiting, fever, or chronic small/large bowel diarrhea
Risk factors associated with Giardia
* cryptosporidium, tritrichiomonas, or coccidia

* less that 6 months old

* other giardia positive animal in household
What % of cats shed giardia?
* 8% of healthy cats

* 18% of cats with acute GI signs

* 24% of cats with chronic GI signs

* 75% of cats also shed cryptosporidium
Why is diagnosis of giardia difficult?
* transparent cysts

* fecal float can cause distortion of cysts

* intermittent shedding

* often empirical drug therapy used before testing
What type of fecal float must be done to diagnose giardia?
* Centrifugal float with ZnSO4

* Must do 3 consecutive samples over 5-7 days
What is considered the most sensitive test for diagnosing giardia?
IFA

* Can also detect cryptosporidium
Do you rule giardia out if tests come back negative?
No
Drugs used to treat giardia
* Fenbendazole
* metronidazole
* drontal
* Albendazole
What drug should be used first to treat giardia?
Fenbendazole
Metronidazole can cause what in kittens?
CNS toxicity
Morphology characteristics of Tritrichomonas foetus
* flagellated protozoan
Tritrichomonas foetus is an important venereal pathogen in what species?
Cattle
Is Tritrichomonas foetus zoonotic?
No
Tritrichomonas foetus is an intestinal pathogen of what species?
Domestic cats
What age group of cats is generally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus?
Young cats (median age is 9 months)
Clinical signs in cats with Tritrichomonas foetus
* Large bowel diarrhea*
- semi-formed to cow-pie
- malodorous
- occ. contains fresh blood and mucus

* Cats generally appear healthy

* Anal region can be edematous

* Rectal prolapse
3 diagnostic tests for Tritrichomonas foetus in cats? Least and most sensitive?
* Fecal Smear - low sensitivity
* In Pouch TF
* PCR - most sensitive
Treatment for cats with Tritrichomonas foetus
* Ronidazole

* Cats usually remain persistently infected without appropriate treatment

* Diarrhea may spontaneously resolve in 2 years
Morphology of Cryptosporidium felis
Intracellular protozoan
When does a cat become infected with Cryptosporidium felis?
After ingestion of a mature oocyst
The sporozoites of Cryptosporidium felis invade what?
The cell membranes of epithelial cells causing villus atrophy
Clinical signs of Cryptosporidium felis
* Diarrhea
*Vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea
* Fever

* Usually self-limiting
* Can spread to other organs in immunocompromised animals
Which Cryptosporidium species is considered zoonotic?
C. parvum in HIV+ patients
4 diagnostic tests for Cryptosporidium
1. Fecal float - poor sensitivity
2. Ziehl- Nielson carbol fuchsin stain
3. Elisa- poor sensitivity
4. IFA
Treatment for Cryptosporidium
* Tylosin
* Azithromycin
* Nitazoxanide
#1 cause of hemorrhagic diarrhea in puppies
Parvovirus!
Morphology of canine parvovirus
* Nonenveloped, ssDNA virus
What does canine parvovirus destroy?
Intestinal crypts
What age group is most susceptible to canine parvovirus?
Puppies 6 weeks to 6 months

* Unvaccinated adults also
Parvo Vaccination
* High titer vaccine (high dose) help overcome low-level maternal antibody interference

* 6,9,12, 16 weeks
when do clinical signs appear of parvo?
3-14 days
Clinical signs of parvo
* Acute enteritis
* Vomiting
* Hemorrhagic diarrhea
* Sepsis
* Shock
When should you begin treating parvo?
Immediately!!
diagnosis of parvo - what 2 tests are available
* SNAP (quick antigen test) - good sensitivity

* PCR - higer sensitivity used only for confirmatory testing
treatment of parvo
* Rehydrate
* treat/prevent sepsis
* IV antibiotics and fluids
* Stop vomiting
* Control pain
Fecal shedding of parvo
* Begins 3-5 days after exposure (prior to CS)

* Typically lasts for 10-14 days ( can be up to 3 weeks)

* Avoid contact with young unvaccinated dogs during fecal shedding period 2-3 weeks
How long can parvo persist in the environmnet?
Months!
best choice for disinfecting for parvo
Diluted bleach
Morphology of salmonella
gram neg bateria
Which salmonella serotype is the most common in dogs and cats?
Salmonella enterica
Salmonella prevalence in dogs and cats
* 0-3% of pet dogs/cats
* Up to 6.3% of stray dogs
* Up to 20% of dogs eating raw diets
* Outdoor cats can acquire by eating infected birds
Clinical signs of Salmonella
* Can be asymptomatic carrier
* Mild gastroenteritis
* Sever hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
* Sepsis
Diagnosis of Salmonella
* Culture with enrichment
* PCR +/- enrichment broth
Treatment for salmonella
Antibiotics recommended only when severe disease, sepsis
Salmonella in humans
* Diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain 12-72 hours post infection

* Lasts 4-7 days

* most recover without treatment
Morphology of Clostridium difficile
* Gram positive bacteria
O2 requirements: C. difficile
anaerobic
Does Clostridium difficile produce spores?
YES
2 toxins produced by Clostridium difficile
1. Toxin A (enterotoxin)
2. Toxin B (cytotoxin)
Clinical signs of Clostridium difficile
* Mild self-limiting diarrhea
* Can cause chronic diarrhea
* Can cause a fatal acute hemorrhagic diarrheal syndrome
Most sensitive diagnostic test of Clostridium difficile
Bacterial cultrure plus ELISA for toxin a/b in cultured isolates
treatment of Clostridium difficile
* not indicated in healthy animals
* standard microbial treatment in diseased animals (metronidazole)
Most important cause of hospital associated and antibiotic associated diarrhea in humans
Clostridium difficile
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
* Common cause of chronic GI disease in pets

* persistent or recurrent GI disease with histologic evidence of inflammatory infiltration of the small or large intestinal mucosa of unknown cause
IBD Pathogenesis: 4 factors
1. Defective immunoregulation
2. Altered mucosal barrier
3. Luminal microbiota
4. Genetic susceptibility
What percent of cells in the body are bacteria?
90%
granulomatous colitis of boxer dogs
AKA Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis

* Genetic anomaly causing severe large bowel diarrhea, weight loss, and hypoalbuminemia seen commonly in boxers
granulomatous colitis of boxer dogs is associated with what bacteria?
Intramucosal adherent and invassive E. colu
Genetic cause of granulomatous colitis of boxer dogs
Polymorphisms in the gene encoding neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 gene (NCF 2)- essential component of bacterial killing
Diagnosis of granulomatous colitis of boxer dogs
FISH of colonic biopsies
Small intestinal dysbiosis
Clinical syndrome caused by an abnormal accumulation of bacteria in the small intesting
Pathophysiology of Small intestinal dysbiosis
* Reabsorption of deconjugated bile acids can lead to fat malabsorption

* Destruction of brush border enzymes

* decreased absorption of monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids
Histology of Small intestinal dysbiosis
* no morphological changes in most cases

* occ. mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate and vilous blunting
CS of Small intestinal dysbiosis
* Chronic intermittent diarrhea

* Weight loss may be present

* CS due to the underlying cause
Diagnosis of Small intestinal dysbiosis
* Quantitative culture of duodenal juice ( no diagnostic value?)

* Serum folate can be increased - indirect test

* Serum cobalamin can be decreased- indirect test
treatment of Small intestinal dysbiosis
* Tylosin
* Cobalamin supplement if needed
Pig scours: weaned vs. nursing piglets
Nursing: Most water is absorbed in the SI, thereforem when they have diarrheam it is more likely a SI pathogen

Weaned: Most water is absorned in the LI, more likely a LI pathogen
Common age of E. coli infections in pigs
2-4 days
E.coli disease in piglets is mostly caused by what?
Enterotoxic E. coli (ETEC) - have K88 pillus antigens

* Binds to receptors in intestine
MOA of ETEC in piglets
* Binding of bacteria to receptors creates a cascade of signaling within the cell

* This leads to secretion of HCO3, loss of albumin, and change in osmolality
CS of ETEC in piglets
* watery or less severe diarrhea
* distended congested gut- no mucosal lesion
* Often alkaline pH of lower gut content
* may begin with hours of birth or 3-4 weeks even post weaning
Treatment and Control of E. coli in pigs
* Fluid/electrolyte replacement
* Antimicrobials
* Colostrum
* Vaccines
Rotavirus is common in what age pigs?
Nursing pigs
MOA of rotavirus
* Affects villous tips
* Maldigestion/malabsorption
CS of rotavirus
* Brown/watery diarrhea
* High morbidity/low mortality
Clostridium perfringens type C is common in what age pigs?
Pigs less than 7 days old
MOA of Clostridium perfringens type C in pigs
* Enterotoxin
* Necrotizing enteriris
* Secretory, maldigestion/ malabsorption
CS of Clostridium perfringens type C in pigs
* Acute, rapid onset
* Bloody diarrhea
* High mortality
Coccidiosis is common in pigs of what age?
Less than 3 weeks old
When do pigs start shedding coccidia oocysts?
about 5 days post infection
How long do pigs shed coccidia oocysts?
ABout 8 days
MOA of coccidia in pigs
invasion of mucosa
CS of coccidia in pigs
* May be bloody diarrhea but RARE
* Dehydration
* Morbidity of 50 - 75%
* recovered pigs have solid immunity
Organism that causes swine dysentery
Serpulina hyodysteriae
swine dysentery occurs in which age group
weaned pigs
MOA of swine dysentery
colon disease
CS of swine dysentery
* 'rice water" stools- bloody with flecks of mucosa
* Weak, ataxic, death
treatment for swine dysentery
antimicrobials- can carry organism for weeks
What age group does salmonella affect pigs?
Suckling or Weaned pigs
2 salmonella strains of concern in pigs
S. cholerasuis – septicemia
S. typhimurium – enteric
CS of septicemic salmonella in pigs
* acute onset
* fever
* weak
* cutaneous erythema
* sudden death

S. cholerasuis – septicemia
CS of enteric salmonella in pigs
* diarrhea +/- blood
* fetid stools with flecks of mucosa
* rectal strictures post recovery

S. typhimurium – enteric
How do you control the spread of salmonella among pigs?
eliminate:
-Carriers
-Contaminated pens/housing, feed
-Sources of stress
What age group does Lawsonia intracellularis affect pigs?
Weaned pigs
What does Lawsonia intracellularis cause in pigs?
* Protein losing enteropathy*
-Necrotic enteritis
-Proliferative enteritis
-Hermorrhagic proliferative enteritis
CS of Lawsonia intracellularis in pigs
-Poor doers
-Acute onset following discontinued medicated feed
+/- diarrhea
What age group does corona virus affect pigs?
Suckling or recently weaned pigs
What does corona virus cause in pigs?
* Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)*
-Affects villous tips AND crypts
What is the "hallmark" lesion for Lawsonia intracellularis in pigs
“garden hose gut” Ileum thickened with possibly fibronecrotic membrane
CS of corona virus in pigs
-Diarrhea
-Vomiting
-Death rate decreases dramatically as age increases
How is corona virus transmitted?
Shed by dogs, cats, birds, or transmitted via fomites
When do outbreaks of corona virus usually occur?
Outbreaks mostly in the winter
What age group does Edema disease affect pigs?
Weaned pigs
Cause of edema dz in pigs?
* E. coli (not ETEC)

* Virulence factor: enterotoxin (vero toxin) – increases vascular permeability
CS of edema dzin pigs
-CNS signs
-Diarrhea
-Edema of eyelids, ears, face, sometimes skin
-Edema in GI mucosa
- Acute deaths following stressors like changes in ration, weaning, castration, vaccination
Acute diarrhea in dairy calves <3 weeks of age accounts for what % of mortality
75%
5 major causes of diarrhea in in dairy calves
* EHEC, EPEC, STEC E. coli
* Rotavirus
* Coronavirus
* Cryptosporidium
* Coccidiosis
5 major causes of diarrhea in in beef calves
* ETEC E. coli
* Rotavirus
* Coronavirus
* Cryptosporidium
* Coccidiosis
At what age does E. coli ETEC affect calves?
<5 days
Virulence factors of E. coli ETEC
-Adhesins: attachment
K99 pilus attachment on enterocytes

-Enterotoxin (heat stable): increase fluid secretion
Pathogenesis of E. coli ETEC -
Inhabits the ileum

-Virulence factors expressed at pH greater than 6.5
At what age does rotavirus affect calves?
5-14 days