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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Meningitis: Cause and tx
-H.influenza
-Neisseira meningitidis
-strep pneumonia
Tx:cefotaxime or ceftriaxone plus vancomycin
Endocarditis: Cause and tx
-strep + staph species
Tx strep: Pen G(may add gent),ceftriaxone,or vanc(if pcn allergy)
-staph MSSA:Nafcil./oxacil.
-staph MSSA all.to PCN:vanc
-staph MRSA:vancomycin
Bronchitis: Cause and tx
-mycoplasma pneumoniae, strep pneumoniae,chlamydia pneum., H. influenza, moraxella
Tx: macrolides, amox, augmentin, doxy, bactrim cefuroxime, cefprozil
Pneumonia: Cause and tx
Community acquired
-M.pneumoniae,s.pneumoniae, klebsiella, h. influenza
Tx: macrolide or fluoroquinolone
Pneumonia: Cause and tx
Hospital aqcuired
-AG + cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, or cefepime, or ticarcillin/clav, meropenem, piperacillin, if MRSA: add vanc
Aspiration Pneumonia tx
-Mouth anaerobes
-uncomplicated: pen G, clinda
-complicated: ticarcillin/clav or piperacillin/tazo
Tuberculosis Cause and tx
-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tx: if latent with isoniazide for 9 months
Latent/iso resistant:rifampin + pyrizinamide 2 months
Active disease: pyrizinamide + rifampin + isoniazide
Infectious diarrhea by salmonella or e-coli
-supportive measures
-if febrile/hospitalized: FQ or Bactrim
Cellulitis: Cause and tx
-strep or staph
-keflex, dicloxicillin, erythromycin
Diabetic foot/decubitus ulcers: Cause and tx
-e-coli, proteus,S aureus, pseudomonas(decubitus only)
Tx: if MRSA use vanc
Otherwise: keflex, clinda, if severe:ticarcillin/clav
Urinary tract infection: Cause and tx
-e-coli mostly, in hospital also p.aeroginosa and staph
Tx: bactrim or cipro(any quinolone).3 days for UTI, 14 days for pyelonephritis,4-6 weeks for prostatitis
Syphilis: Cause and treatment
-spirochete:treponema pallidum
-Pen G 2.4 mill units IM x1
50000-75000 U/kg q12 for infant born to infected, untreated mom
-21 days after exposure:painless lesion
Gonorrhea: Cause and tx
-neisseria gonorrhea (gram -)
-Pen and FQ resistant
-only 3rd gen cephalosporins: ceftraixone 125 IM x1
Spectinomycin 2g IM q12hx2days
Chlamydia tx
-always tx when pt. diagnosed with gonorrhea
-azithromycin 1g x1
-doxy 100 mg bid x 7days
Sepsis signs and symptoms
at least 2 of these criteria:
-temp >38 or <36
-WBC>12000 or <4000
-RR>20
-HR>90
>10% immature neutrophil(band)
-PaCo2 <32 Torr
Treatment of sepsis
-ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, ticarcillin,piperaccillin, meropenem,imipenem + AG
If gram + suspected: vanco
Tick-borne infections
-lyme disease
-rocky mountain spotted fever
-Ehrlichiosis
-Tularemia
Rickettsia species
Lyme disese tx
-DOC: doxy
-alternative:cefuroxime
Rocky Mountain fever tx
-DOC: doxy
-alternative: chloramphenicol
Ehrlichiosis
Tularemia
-DOC for ehrlichio: doxy
-alternative:tetracycline
-DOC for Tularemia:gent/tobra
-alternative: cipro,chloramphe
Herpes virus family causes:
-chicken pox/shingles
-CMV in immunocompromised as retinitis, colitis, esophagitis
-genital infectionsh
Aminoglycosides MOA and stuff
-inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
-bactericidal
-gram + and gram - aerobes
-no anaerobes
-desired trough<2mcg/mL
Aminoglycosides Adverse Effects
-nephrotoxicity:reversible
-ototoxicity
-neuromuscular blockade
Penicillins MOA and stuff
-inhibit cell wall synthesis
-bactericidal
Cephalosporins MOA
-Cell wall synthesis inhibition
-bacteriocidal
Fluoroquinolones MOA
-Disruption of bacterial DNA synthesis
-bacteriocidal
Gram positive antibiotics
-linezolid (zyvox)
-quinapristin/dalfopristin (synercid) only IV
-vancomycin
Linezolid MOA and stuff
-inhibits bacterial translation
-static against enterococci and staph,
-cidal against strep
-active against e.faecium, but not faecalis
Synercid MOA and stuff
-Quinapristin inhibits late phase protein synthesis,dalfopristin inhibits early phase protein synthesis
cidal against staph and strep
static against e.faecium, but not e. faecalis
Common SE:thrombophlebitis, hyperbilirubinemia(25%),arthralgia, myalgia
Vancomycin MOA and stuff
-inhibits peptoglycan synthesis (no wall)
-glycopeptide antibiotic
-cidal for all except entero(static)
Vancomycin Adverse Effects
Nephrotoxicity (small)
ototoxicity
thrombophlebitis (IV)
histamine release or red man syndrome (reduce infusion rate to no more than 500 mg/30 min)
fluoroquinolones MOA and such
-cidal
-disruption of bacterial DNA
-concentration dependent activity
-large Vd, high tissue concentrations
Macrolides MOA and such
-static
-inhibit RNA synthesis
-only biaxin is renally eliminatedg
Sulfonamides MOA and such
-static
-interfere with folic acid
-
macrolides MOA and such
bacteriostatic
inhibit RNA synthesis
tetracyclines MOA and such
-static
-inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
Tetracyclines are DOC in:
-atypical pneumonia: mycoplasma pneumonia+ chlamydia pneumonia
-clamydia (STD)
-MRSA if vanc not appropriateg
-NOT pseudomonas
amphotericin MOA and such
-polyene antifungal
-nephrotoxicity is dose-limiting
-electrolyte imbalances: hypo- magnesemia, kalemia, calcemia
-normocytic,normochromic anemia
-dose not to exceed 1.5mg/kg/day
Itraconazole spectrum of activity
-Sporanox
-esophageal and oropharyngeal candidiasis
-aspergillosis
-onychomycosis