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91 Cards in this Set

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What are the other four names that also are used for Measles?
1. Rubeola
2. Hard Measles
3. Red Measles
4. Morbilli
What are the other four names that also are used for Measles?
1. Rubeola
2. Hard Measles
3. Red Measles
4. Morbilli
What is the aka for Mumps?
Infectious Parotitis
What are the two aka's for Rubella?
1. German Measles
2. 3-Day Measles
What is the aka for Polio?
Infantile Paralysis
What is the aka for Chickenpox?
Varicella
What is the aka for Herpes Zoster?
Girdle
What are the two aka's for Fifth Disease?
1. Erythema Infeciosum
2. Academy Rash
What is the aka for Pertussis?
Whooping Cough
What are the four paramyxovirus's that cause human disease?
1. Measles
2. Mumps
3. Parainfluenza Virus
4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
What four viruses are Enveloped?
1. Measles
2. Rubella
3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
4. Parainfluenza Virus
What three viruses are ssRNA?
1. Rubella
2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
3. Parainfluenza Virus
What virus is an RNA virus?
Measles
What viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets?
1. Measles
2. Mumps
3. Rubella
4. Polio
5. Chickenpox
6. Fifth Disease
What virus can be transmitted by direct contact with saliva?
Mumps
What virus can be transmitted via fecal-oral?
Polio
What virus can adults infect children, but children cannot infect adults?
Herpes-Zoster
What are the symptoms/pathogenesis of measles?
1. Koplik's spots
2. fever
3. coryza
4. cough
5. conjunctivitis
6. blotchy maculopapular rash on face
7. vasculitis
8. Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells
What virus causes parotitis?
Mumps
What are the symptoms/pathogenesis of Mumps?
1. Parotitis
2. Viremia
3. fever
4. 1/2 of people contracting mumps have CNS involvement
What is the pathogenesis of Polio?
Infects the pharynx (tonsils), small intestine (peyers patches), then viremia in body.
What are the symptoms/pathogenesis of Chickenpox?
1. Viremia
2. Fever (worse in adults)
3. Malaise
4. rash on trunk
5. itchy vesicles that burst, forming scabs
What is the name given to Herpes-Zoster upon reactivation?
Shingles
When Shingles are activated in herpes-zoster, what gets inflammed?
The Dorsal Nerve Root Ganglion (DNRG)
What is the appearence and location of shingles when it manifests?
A unilateral rash around the thoracic area
What virus is associated with Slapped Cheak Rash?
Fifth Disease
Fifth disease manifests with what symptoms/pathology?
Slapped Cheak Rash
Arthralgia
Chronic Hemolytic Anemia
Lace-like rash on trunk and limbs
What are the symptoms/pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus?
In Infants?
In Children and Adults?
In the Elderly?
Bronchiolitis and Pneumonia in children < 1 year of age

Cold-like illness in children and adults

Severe flu-like illness and pneumonia in the elderly
What is the bacterial agent for Diptheria?
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae
What is the bacterial agent for Tetanus?
Clostridium Tetani
What is the bacterial agent for Pertussis?
Bordetella Pertussis
What is the bacterial agent for Hemophilus Influenza?
It is the blood loving agent of influenza
Is diptheria gram (-) or gram (+)?
Gram (+)
What type of toxin does Diptheria have?
Exotoxin
What kind of toxin does Tetanus have?
Monotypic Neurotoxin
What kind of toxin does pertussis have?
Both an endotoxin, and several exotoxins (cytotoxin and pertussis toxin)
What are the toxic effects of diptheria?
1. fatty degeneration of liver, adrenals, kidneys, peripheral nerves, and myocardium
What are the toxic effects of tetanus?
The neurotoxin binds to the post synaptic membrane blocking reciprocal inhibition. Rigidity occurs because opposing muscles contract simultaneously
What are the toxic effects of pertussis?
The cytotoxin kills epithelial cells.

The pertussis toxin induces high lymphocytosis, inhibits adenalate cyclase, and blocks phagocytosis
How is diptheria transmitted?
Organisms are usually inhaled, and sometimes it is in raw milk
What are the clinical manifestations of diptheria?
A grayish psuedomembrane forms in throat from coagulation of dead respiratory epithelial cells, bacteria, fibrin, and pus.
How is tetanus transmitted?
Tetanus spores can enter through puncture wounds.
What are the clinical manifestations of tetanus?
Rigidity
Spasms
Pain/Stiffness in abdomen
Lock Jaw
Risus Sardonicus (sustained spasm in facical mm.)
Dysphagia
Tetanus can lead to what secondary manifestation?
Pneumonia following aspiration of fluid
What is the name used for tetanus that affects the newborns?
Tetanus Neonatorum
How is Tetanus Neonatorum contracted?
From the infected umbilicus of an unvaccinated mother
What are the clinical manifestations of pertussis?
Upper respiratory tract infection lasts for weeks, including 3 stages:
Stage 1 = Catarrhal - 1 week acute restricted infection of respiratory epithelium. Includes fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis, cough
Stage 2 = Paroxysmal - 1-6 weeks of multiplication and acute inflammation (laryngotracheobronchitis) mucus clogs airways, worsening cough with inspiratory whoop and vomiting. Fatalities occur from pneumonia in infants.
Stage 3 = Convalescent - 6-12 weeks of recovery
What are the secondary manifestations of pertussis?
pneumonia (may be fatal in infants)
seizures (although infrequent)
Hemophilus Influenza flora are normally found where within the body?
The nasopharynx
What is the pathogenic property of hemophilus influenza?
It has a capsule. There are 6 capsule types (A-F). B is BAD!
What are the symptoms/pathogenesis of hemophilus influenza?
Urinary Tract Infections
Tonsilitis
Otitis Media (Hib is 2nd leading cause of ear infection)
Pharyngitis
Acute Epiglottitis
Childhood Meningitis (can cause permanent brain damage: blindness, deafness, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hydrocephaly)
Pneumonia
What is a secondary condition that can occur from hemophilus influenza?
A urinary tract infection my lead to a respiratory tract infection, which can cause death in 24 hours if there is no tracheostomy.
What bacteria is the primary cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide?
Hemophilus Influenza
What is the most characteristic feature of Measles?
Koplik spots - red with white center
What is the most characteristic feature of Mumps?
Swollen Parotid gland
What is the most characteristic feature of Rubella?
Rash during spring and during epidemics
What is the most characteristic feature of Chickenpox?
Rash on trunk, spreads to arms, face, legs, itchy vesicles that burst and form scabs
What is the most characteristic feature of Croup?
Croup is also known as laryngotracheobronchitis. Is a symptom of Parainfluenza. Croup is a barking cough with inspiratory stridor
What is the most characteristic feature of Fifth Disease?
Mild "slapped cheak" rash, and arthralgia
What is the most characteristic feature of Diptheria?
Grayish pseudomembrane in throat made up of bacteria, dead respiratory epithelial cells, pus
What is the most characteristic feature of Pertusis?
A paroxysmal cough followed by inspiratory whoop and vomiting
What is the most characteristic feature of Tetanus?
Risus Sardonicus - Spasm of facial muscles
Why do public health officials promote vaccines for diseases that have been dramatically reduced already?
1. To defend against asymptomatic carriers.
2. To defend against people carrying the virus into the U.S. from other countries.
3. To defend against people who have had incomplete vaccinations.
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Measles
- Enveloped RNA Virus
- Morbillivirus of the Paramyxoviridae

Group:
A fatal condition in adults who had measles when they were under the age of 2 (CNS degeneration)
Orchitis:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Mumps
- Paramyxoviridae

Group:
Post pubescent males and adults
Shingles:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Varicella-Zoster

Group:
Predominantly a disease of middle/old age, 60 yrs +.
Giant Cell Pneumonia:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Measles from multinucleated giant cells (Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells)

Group:
- Found in protein malnourished children less than 5 years of age
Erythema Infectiosum:
What it the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Fifth Disease
- Human Parvovirus B19

Group:
- Adults from household and schools that have contracted it from children
Risus Sardonicus:
What it the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Tetanus
- Chlostridium Tetani

Group:
- Drug addicts, elderly, immunocompromised
Childhood Meningitis:
What it the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Hemophilus Influenza
- Gram (-) aerobic, coccobacillus

Group:
- Children age 6 months - 2 years old
Acute Epiglottitis:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Hemophilus Influenza
- Gram (-), aerobic, coccobacillus

Group:
- Children 5 years old or less
Croup:
What is the agent?
What is the group in the population most at risk?
Agent:
- Parainfluenza Virus
- Enveloped paramyxovirus
- ssRNA

Group:
- Children under 3 years of age
Regarding Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS):
Describe cardinal characteristics?
Indicate when during pregnancy risk is greatest?
Cardinal Characteristics:
Abortion; cataracts, glaucoma, heart defects, deafness, mental retardation.

When during pregnancy?
When a pregnant woman aquires it in the first month of pregnancy
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Measles?
Pro - 95% effective
Con - Demyelinating encephalopathy in 1 in a million vaccines
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Mumps?
Pro - Life long immunity
Con - None
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Rubella?
Pro - reduced incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) in children 1-12 by 70%
Con - None identified in notes
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Polio?
Pro - Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (TOPV) has reduced disease by 1000X, can stop epidemics, easy to administer (taken orally)
Con - Salk Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) requires injection. TOPV may revert to virulent form in 1/2.5 million vaccinations)
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Tetanus?
Pro - Only about 50 cases per year in U.S from vaccination
Con - Mortality rate is 45%
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Diptheria?
Pro - Immunization protects against toxic effects of diptheria. Protection good for 10 years.
Con - Immunization does not protect against colonization
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Pertussis?
Pro - 90% effective in infants
Con - May cause encephalopathy, seizure, SIDS, but investigation does not support causal role. Most common side effect is inconsolable crying for 24 hours
Pros and Cons of vaccination for :
Hemophilus Influenza?
Pro - 98% decline in incedence. Less than 10 fatalities per year.
Con - None identified
Regarding Post Polio Sydrome:
What is it?
Who is at risk?
What is the treatment?
What is the prognosis?
What is it? - Paralytic poliomyelitis that develops 25-35 years after apparent recovery.
Who is at risk? - Adults from 25 years +
What is the treatment? - No treatment
Prognosis? - profound weakness, pain, loss of muscle mass in previously affected limb
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Measles?
Good, as humans are only reservoir and disease dies out in isolated communities. Recovery from disease confers life-long immunity in most people. Is a stable single antigenic type, so can be controlled better.
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Mumps?
Vaccine confers life long immunity. Single antigenic type easier to eradicate.
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Rubella?
Good. Aggressive campaign to immunize children age 1-12 has reduced incidence by 70%
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Polio?
Possible. Humans are only reservoir, so eradication is possible with IPV vaccine
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Tetanus?
Possible, but unlikely. Vaccination has reduced incidence to 50 cases per year. But, drug addicts and elderly with low immune status at higher risk.
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Diptheria?
Unlikely. immunization only protects against toxic effects, not colonization.
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Pertussis?
Good. Vaccine is 90% effective
What is the likelihood of eradication for:
Hemophilus Influenza?
good. 98% decline in incidence from vaccine.
What obstacles exist to the widespread use of a vaccine for RSV?
The vaccine, Formalin may cause disease upon natural re-exposure to RSV