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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Rabies virus category
Rabies AKA
Rabies transmission
saliva, blood, open wound, scratch, bite
Rabies infect cycle
saliva - nearest nerve - CNS via perkinje fibers within cerebellum - forms negri bodies, which destroy brain cells
Rabies infect period
Clinical signs 10 days

Complete infectious period 1-7days

Prepatent period 3wks - 2yrs (6mo)
Rabies vectors
fox, skunk, raccoon, silver haired bat
Rabies Clinical Signs
Stage 1: Prodromal, behavioral changes (2-3d)

Stage 2: Furious, vicious/lunging, muscle tremors, incoordination

Stage 3: Paralytic, paralysis sets in, death
Rabies Dx
Microscopic exam of brain tissue
Rabies Tx
always fatal
Rabies Prevention
1st vaccinines given between 12-16 weeks of age; then boosters given every 1-3 years
Lyme virus category
Vector Borne/Viral
Lyme AKA
Borreliosis (causative agent: borielia burgdorferi)
Lyme Transmission
Deer Tick & its relatives (Ixodes)
Lyme Infect cycle
from bite into SQ tissue
Lyme infect period
after 7-21 days clinicals signs, protenuria & increase in WBC
Lyme C/S
fever, listlessness, anorexia, shifting leg lameness, swelling of joints, nephritis, uveitis.
Lyme Dx
antibody serial titers to reveal changes from day 1 to day 6 (ex: showing increase from 1:16 to 1:64), Western Blot can also be used to test for antigens (using blood smears or EDTA)
Lyme Tx
antibiotics for 21-28d - tetracyclines or pennicillin (however may lead to long term joint trauma after TX)
Lyme prevention
vaccinate - esp in west and sout west. Vaccine can also make it difficult to test for titers.
Leptospirosis organism

Leptospira (2 serovars: canicola and icterohemorrhagiae)
Lepto transmission
shed in the urine of infected animals or via urine contaminated water. Personnel should wear gloves when cleanining cages (HIGHLY ZOONOTIC)
Lepto infect cycle
travels to the kidneys and in some cases to the liver
Lepto infect period
2-3 days after clinical signs start Poly-uria and Poly Dipthia, dehydration and low temp, orange urine may also be present.
Lepto vectors
contaminated unrine, fomites (cages). Outdoor/country dogs are often exposed to contaminated waste
Lepto C/S
after 4-12 days depression, fever, V/D .
Lepto Dx
urine sample, ELISA (look for serial titer increase), MAT (microscopic agglutination) and PCR (for DNA of organism)
Lepto Prevention
IV antibiotics, fluid therapy to flush kidneys, diuretics for 14days
Ehrlichiosis organism
Ehrlichia Canis
Ehrlichiosis Transmission
Brown Dog Tick
Ehrlichiosis infect cycle
invades lymph>dpleen>bone marrow - causes decrease in RBC ans wipes out platelets. If left untreated can develop Pancytopenia (needing multiple blood transfusions)
Ehrlichiosis infect period
2-3 days after clinical signs start Poly-uria and Poly Dipthia, dehydration and low temp, orange urine may also be present.
Ehrlichiosis C/S
fever, depression, icterus (inc billiruben), enlarged lymph, stiff/lameness, bleeding from the nose
Ehrlichiosis Dx
ELISA (titer for Ehrlichia antibodies
Ehrlichiosis Tx
intense antiobiotics: Pennecillin, tetracyclines, enrofloxacin
Ehrlichiosis Prevention
no vaccine. Ridding the dog's environemnt of ticks and/or low doses of tetracycline during tick season.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
FIP organism
Enteric Corona/ Viral
FIP transmission
FIP infect cycle
blood transfusions) 2-3 weeks for immune respond to the presence of infection. Brown Dog Tick fever, depression, icterus (inc billiruben), enlarged lymph, stiff/lameness, bleeding from the nose ELISA (titer for Ehrlichia antibodies) intense antiobiotics: Pennecillin, tetracyclines, enrofloxacin no vaccine. Ridding the dog's environemnt of ticks and/or low doses of tetracycline during tick season.
8 FIP 96-97% mortality rate Enteric Corona/ Viral Feline Infectious Peritonitis oral-fecal ENT-CO: virus mutates and travels to > GI Tract> then to macrophages> lymph> tissue. The body either mounts a cell mediated immune response (T-cells kill) or a humoral immune response (B-cells over rx) If FIP develops then
FIP infect period
5-14 day incubation period; can last on a fomite for up to 7days.
FIP vectors
fomites, multiple cat households or stressful shelter environment.
"wet" - massive abdominal effusion (straw colored viscous fluid or emaciation)
only definitive DX via tissue isolation (IFA) or biopsy of granuloma. abdominal centisis to detect straw colored viscous fluid assoc with "wet" form.
human "interferon" (steroid) has some effect of prolonging life (6months -1year) also abdominal centisis used to treat "wet" form.
FIP Prevention
vaccinate in 2-4 weekd intervals with annual boosters.
Feline Leukemia Virus
FELV organism
FELV transmission
oral-nasal (saliva); transplacental
FELV infect cycle
stage 1 - day 3-21: invades local lymph and body begins to mount immune response to dz. Stage 2 - day 28: invades lymphocytes/monocytes (may still be ELISA neg). Stage 3 - day 29?: invades spleen and other lymphnodes and sometimes liver - will be ELISA pos+
FELV vectors
outdoor cats prone and those from shelters with unknown hx
depressed, poor doer, FUO, wt. loss, anemia, icterus
ELISA and IFA testing: ELISA+ animals should be retetsed with IFA to determine final DX due to possible immune response mounted 2-3 months after ELISA+ DX. ELISA+ and IFA- =discordant ELISA+ and IFA+ = active viremia or BM/Lymph cancer. ELISA- and IFA+ = virus only in BM and/or saliva.
supportive care, monitoring and retesting
FELV prevention
vaccinate: MERIAL intradermal (epidermis/dermis/SQ tissues)
Feline Immunosuppresent Virus
FIV organism
FIV transmission
bite wound from other cats.
FIV infect period
Incubation period may last as long as 6 years. Virus may be present in cat up to two years before test are positive.
FIV vectors
Bite wounds from infected cats usually received during fights
depressed, poor doer, FUO, abscess/infection, stomatitis,
FIV prevention
Parvovirus AKA
Canine-Parvovirus / CPV
Parvo organism
non-envelope virus
Parvo transmission
Oral-Fecal Transmission Very hearty, can survive for up to 18 months on a fomite
Parvo infect cycle
Travels to the lymph nodes and the crypts of the intestinal villi - breaks down the barrier the barrier of normal flora and produces toxins in the crypts causing inflammation. May attack heart muscle in extreme cases.
Parvo infect period
5-9 Day Incubation Period
Parvo vectors
May last 18 months on fomites. Need to clean using 1:30 of bleach to water
Parvo C/S
Depression, Anorexia, F.U.O., Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting
Parvo Dx
Parvo snap test / Parvo antigen test
Parvo Tx
IV fluids
Parvo prevention
Multiple agent vaccine given at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age
Distemper AKA
Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)
Distemper transmission
Feces, Saliva, Ocular, Urine and Respiratory Secretions
Distemper infect cycle
Virus invades respiratory system where it reproduces. Can also invade nervous system in extreme cases - in these cases recovery is unlikely.
Distemper infect period
Virus shed for 6-7 weeks. Infection spreads from respiratory tract to other parts of body after 2-3 weeks if no immune response exists.
Distemper vectors
Coyotes, Ferrets, Minks, Racoons, Skunks, Foxes
Distemper C/S
Depend on the strain - occular and nasal discharge, respiratory distress, coughing, diarrhea, vomiting, GI problems, pneumonia, seizures, jaw twitching, keratinization of foot pads and nose
Distemper Dx
Evaluation of vaccine history, test blood over a period of a few weeks to detect any rising levels of distemper antibodies, definitive Dx can be made by identifying the presense of inclusion bodies in cells and tissues microscopically
Distemper Tx
No specific therap - supportive care to minimize stress and maintain the need fluids and nutrition
Distemper prevention
Protection through antibodies transmitted via colustrum, vaccination should begin at 6-8 weeks with boosters given every 2-3 weeks until 14-16 weeks of age
Kennel Cough organism
Infectious Tracheao Bronchitis, Bordatella bronchiseptica, Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, Mycoplasma
Kennel Cough transmission
Aerosol or Mucus Membrane routes
Kennel Cough infect cycle
Primary invaders such as B.b. or Adenovirus invade upper-respiratory tract followed by secondary infections such as Mycoplasma
Kennel cough infect period
Dry coughing can last only days or may persist for many weeks
Kennel cough C/S
dry hacking cough, mild dyspnaea, rare occular discharge, can still be bright/alert/responsive regardless
Kennel cough Dx
Blood count, chest x-rays, fluid sample from trachea, general history and physical exam are adequate to make presumptive diagnosis
Kennel Cough Tx
Antibiotics - tetracycline and short-term use of cough suppressants
Kennel Cough prevention
Intra-nasal vaccines and periodic boosters when placed in kennel situation - non-core, meaning non-annual needed vaccine