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112 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Measles A.K.A
Rubeola, hard measles, red measles, morbilli
Name viruses of paramyxovirus family
Measles, mumps, RSV, parainfluenza
other than airborne what are the other ways for viral transmission? And give the example
fecal-oral = polio
skin contact = chickenpox and herpes zoster
Most contagiousof human diseases
When is measles contagious
2-3 days before fever and 4 days after appearance of rash
Signs and symptoms of measles
coryza, fever, cough, conjunctivitis, Koplik's spots, lymphadenopathy, skin rash
What are Koplik's spots
red oral mucosal rash with white centers
describe skin rash associated with measles
blotchy maculopapular due to vasculitis. begins on face and spreds. last 3-5 days
What is lymphadenopathy and what does it lead to
swelling of lymph nodes. It's leads to Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells
What are Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells and where can they be found mostly
Multinucleated giant cells formed from lymphoid hyperplasia with lymphatenopathy. Found in cervical nodes
If someone with measles die what will it be from
viral or secondary pneumonia of protein malnourished children (especially in poor countries)or encephalitis
Age of most people that die from measles
kids < 5 yoa
what does SSPE stand for
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
Who usually gets SSPE half of the time
Those infected with measles before 2 yoa
When does SSPE occur and what is it
Years after recovery from measles. A infection of the CNS by a muted virus.Causes gliosis and myelin degeneration.
why is measles almost eradicated in the U.S.
human only reservoir, life-long immunity, stable, vaccine introduced,
Negative side-effects to vaccine toward measles
demyelinating encephalopathy, supposed autism due to thimerosal ingredient
Mumps A.K.A.
infectious parotitis
What percentage of people exposed to mumps become infected and what percentage of that is asymptomatic
what other conditions can mumps lead to
parotitis, orchitis, and mastitis, aseptic meningitis, encepahlitis, sensorineural hearing
can orchitis casue insterility
n, because it only effects one testical
what percentage of females infected with the mumps get mastitis
peak incidence age for mumps
5-15 yoa
Rubella A.K.A.
german measles, 3 day measles
Symptoms of rubella
3 day rash (not distinctive)
What does CRS stand for and who gets it.
Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Babies with mother infected during pregnacy.
When is the fetus most at risk
first trimester of pregnacy
80% affected
what things can CRS casue in an infant
abortion, cataracts, glaucoma, heart defects, deafness, mental retardation.
Which childhood virus is an enterovirus
polio and rotavirus
how long after infection with polio is the virus shed and when is it most contagious
5 weeks, most contagious during first week.
Where does the polio virus multiply
pharynx and small intestine and then spread
What other conditions can polio lead
Paralytic poliomyelitis, and post-polio syndrome
what is paralytic poliomyelitis
When polio virus can spread to CNS and casue necrosis of motor neurons resulting i flaccid paralysis
Can one die from paralytic poliomyelitis
Yes, when have respiratory paralysis
What does PPS stand for
Post-polio syndrome
When does PPS occur and what happens
25-35 years after recovery from polio and get muscle weakness in limb effceted
Is PPS the polio virus reactivated
No, it is because the effected muscle has less motor neurons.
what vaccines are used for polio
List advantages of TOPV over IPV
neutralizes wild type by stimulating IgA production, is easier to administer, can stop epidemics
List disadvantages of TOPV to IPV
TOPV can revert and become virulent, IPV can lead to iradication
Chicken pox A.K.A.
how long dos someone stay contagious with chickenpox
1 day prior to rash until 6 days after rash goes away
how long does a fever last with chicken-pox
2-3 days
In 15% of adult chickenpox cases what can occur
primal viral pneumonia
Different complications with chickenpox
neurological, disseminated, and secondary infections
What is shingles
reactivated virus of herpes zoser that is inflammation of DNRG
How does herpes zoster manifest
unilateral rash around thoracic area and painful
Who is most likely to get herpes zoster
people >60 and develop depression
Who is at most risk from getting shingles
Those with cancer such as Hodgkins and immunosuppressed individuals
Fifth disease A.K.A
erythema infectiosum and academy rash
Where do fifth disease infections replicate
In the nucleus of rapidly growing cells such as skin and bone marrow
How does fifth disease cause problems in the body
Replication produces cytopathic effects of erythroid precursors causing interrupted RBC production
Signs and syptoms of fifth's disease
Slapped cheek rash on trunk and extremities and arthralgies in hands knees and wrist
How are those with chronic hemolytic diseases like sickle cell and B-thalassemia effected by fifth's disease
It deveoping a fatal anemia besides the one they already have and require a transusion
what % of fetus/mother infected with fifth's disease turn fatal
Fifth's disease outbreaks are common within what
households and schools. basically, closed spaces
Who is naturally resistant to fifth's disease
Those who lack P blood group marker and doesn't allow virus to dock
What does RSV satnd for
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
How does RSV manifest in babies, children, adults, and elderly
babies = bronchiolitis and pneumonia
Children and adults = cold-like illness
Elderly = flu-like illness and pneumonia
Most severe RSV is seen in which age group and which conditions
babies <6 months. Also, those immunsuppresed or with congenital heart disease
What is the most frequent infection exacerbating childhood asthma and adult chronic bronchitis
Why is it difficult to prevent RSV
Immunity from mom is temporary and vaccine is temporary.
What age group is effected mostly by parainfluenza
kids under 3
another word for croup
What is croup
barking cough and inspiratory stridor characteristic of parainfluenza
What does the parainfluenza virus do to the body
infects and kills respiratory epithelium leading to inflammation of airway and obstruct breathing
Virus that casues the most common cause of infantile diarrhea
Rotavirus can be severe in which type of person
AIDS patient
What type of cells do rotavirus infect
mature enterocytes of small intestine
How long can rotavirus be excreted
2-12 days or longer in person is malnourished
How can a baby get immunity for rotavirus
IgA from mother but stops at weaning (6 months)
List the bacterial childhood diseases
Diptheria, tetanus, Pertussis. Childhood meningitis
What type of impact has vaccines had on the CFR of diptheria
went from 1/10 to <100 cases a year in the U.S.
Who commonly gets Diptheria now
Non-immunized kids, illegal immigrants and aliens
Agent that casues Diptheria
Corynebacterium diptheriae
What characteristic propert does diptheria have the casues the infected problem
Explain diptherias exotoxin
2 fragments. A&B. A inhibits protein synthesis, and B Docks to the host cell membrane
How is diptheria transmitted
Inhaled trough air, ingested in raw milk,
What is grayish pseudomembrane
dead respiratory epitheloid cells, bacteria, fibrin, and pus that forms with a diptheria infection
Outcome of grayish pseudomembrane
Spread down throat and mess with breathing gas exchange. Or it can be pulled out and cause bleeding and suffocation with broken pieces
Can diptheria effect our system
Systemic effects of Diptheria
fatty degeneration of myocardium, liver, adrenals, kidneys, and myelin of PNS
Are the systemic effects of diptheria reversible after recovery
some of them. But, cardiac and nervous are not
If a person becomes immune tho diptheria what are they becomeing immune to
the exotoxin
How is diptheria treated
Antibiotics giving passive immunity with DPT vaccine and antitoxin given in hte shick test
explain the schick test
small amount of toxin injected to elicit an immune repsonse within 48 hrs. If no reaction immune and
Causative agent of tetanus
clostridium tetani
pathogenic pproperty of clostridium tetani
a neurotoxin (exotoxin)blocking reciprocal inhibition and muscles contract at the same time
How does one get tetanus
spores introduced in a puncture wound
The worse prognosis of tetanus is related to what
Short incubation
What is risus sardonicus
when all muscles get rigid and person looks scary
How can one with tetanus die
asphyxiation or secondary pneumonia
High risk groups for tetaus
drug addicts (IV users), and elderly
What is tetanus neonatorun
baby infected with tetanus from an infected umbilicus from getting it cut
Pertussis A.K.A.
whooping cough
Causative agent of pertusis
Bordetella pertusis
Pathogenic propeties of whooping cough
endotoxins and exotoxins such as ctotoxin that kills respiratory epitheloid cells and a pertussis toxin
What does pertussis toxin do
induces high lymphocytosis, and inhibits adenyl cyclase that blocks phagocytosis
3 stages of URT illness with pertussis
Catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stage
Whos at greates risk for whooping cough
How is whooping cough controlled
DPT vaccine and acellular vaccine in Jaapan
What does the U.S. occurance of diptheria owe to
Sporadic of incomplete vaccination
Who is highly contagious with Pertusis
children < 5 yoa
Blod loving agent of influenza
H. flu
Normal member of nasopharynx flora of 20-50% of adults
H. flu
What pathogenic propert does H. flu have that casues the infection
capsule B- bad
Second leading cause of otitis media
H. flu
What does acute epiglottis lead to
Death due to respiratory tract obstruction
Clinical conditions one can have with H. flu
tonsiltits, pharyngitis, ear infection, acute epiglottitis,childhood meningitis, and pneumonia
Recovery from childhood meningitis can lead to what
permanant brain damage, blindness, deafness, MR, CP, and hydrocephaly
Whos is at greatest ris for h.flu
< 5 yoa
Vaccine for H. flu
Hib vaccine given with DT series at 2, 4, and 6 months