Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/114

Click to flip

114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Category C Agent of Bioterrorism?
emerging pathogens such as Nipah & Hantavirus
Category B Agent of Bioterrorism?
moderately easty to disseminate, moderate/low morbidty - E Cold 0157, Shigella, Typhus, Cholera, etc
Category A Agent of Bioterrorism?
Highest risk - anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, etc
Trichophyton sp.
Tinea pedis (athlete's foot)

"3 toes phyt on"
Chlamydia trachomatis causes
Female STERILITY and BLINDNESS (opacities of cornea), Reactive Arthritis (Ritter's Syndrom) and maybe heart problems

"Can't See, Can't Pee, Can't Climb a Tree"

Also most common cause of Ritters but it may also be cause by many other bugs
What fungus are you most likely to be infected with in the SW US? Ohio River Valley?
Coccidoides

Histoplasma
How much of an inflammatory response is there in fungal infections?
Minimal to none
Describe Helminths reproduction patterns
Alternate b/w sexual (IN HOST) and asexual (IN INTERMEDIARY HOST/VECTOR) reproduction

NO multiplication occurs in HOSTS, just production of eggs and larvae
What is reaction caused by in infection of Helminths?
Inflammatory RESPONSE to EGGS or LARVAE
Properties of skin that make it a good barrier to infection (3)?
1) Dense, keratinized

2) Low pH

3) Fatty acids (inhibit growth of microorganisms except for normal flora)
Properties of GI Tract that against infection (6)?
1) Gastric Acid

2) Viscous mucous layer

3) Lytic pancreatic enzymes and bile detergents

4) Mucousal anti-bacerial peptides (DEFENSINS)

5) Normal flora

6) MALT -> secred IgA antibodies
Properties of Respiratory Tract that against infection (4)?
1) Ciliary activity

2) Mucous layer

3) Mucousal anti-bacerial peptides (DEFENSINS)

4) Secreted IgA
Microbes less than what size travel to alveoli?

How are they cleared?
< 5 micrometers

cleared by MACROPHAGES or PMNs recruited by cytokines
Properties of UG Tract that against infection (3)?
1) Regular flushing with urine

2) Long distance from bladder to ureathra (women shorter therefore > infections)

3) Vaginal low pH
Placental-fetal transmission occurs when? 1)Rubella 2)Syphilis (Treponemea pallidum)
1) 1st Trimester - congenital heart disease, MR, cataracts, deafness

2) late 2nd trimester - osteochondritis, periostitis, fibrotic lungs, RASH (palms & soles), hepatomegally; ; Hutchingson's triad
Microbaterium & Listeria monocytogenes infect?
Macrophages -

Microbacterium - utilizes host's C' Response (alternate pathway) -> Blocks FUSION of phagosome & lysosome

Listeria - used listeriolysin O (pore forming) and two phospholipaes to degrade phagosome membrane for escape into cytoplasm
Shigella and E Coli infect?
Epithelial cells

Shingella & E Coli - INHIBIT PROTIEN SYN, REPLICATE rapidly and LYSE host cell
Salmonella typhi infects?
Macrophates AND Epithelial cells

ROSE SPOTS on chest and abdomen
Rheumatic fever is caused by?
Host Immunity Injury; MOLECULAR MIMICRY

X-RXN b/w Strept pyogenes M PROTEIN with CARDIAC PROTEINS
Post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Host Immunity Injury

Ag/Ab complex deposition (Type III Hypersensitivity reaction)
Is Staph Motile?
No
Herpes stromal keratitis characterized by?
Mononuclear cell infiltrates around endothelial cells; neovascularization, scarring, opacification of the cornea and BLINDNESS may occer
Herpes epithelial keratitis characterized by?
viral-induced epithelial cytolysis
Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID) manifestations incldue?
Hemolytic anemia,
jaundice,
hepatosplenomegaly,
deafness,
brain damage,
thrombocytopenia
What is teh most common opportunistic pathogen in AIDS?
CMV
What is unique about Hepatitis B amoungst its DNA viral counterparts?
Hepatitis B's DNA genome is synthesized by REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION of an RNA template

-lack of proofreading fxn causes high mutation rate
Cellular injury of Hep B stems from?
BODY'S IMMUNE RESPONSE, not cytopathic effects of the virus
Koilocytosis is? Caused by?
Perinuclear vacuolization of epithelial cells

HPV
What is unique about to Listeria monocytogenes amoungst GP baceteria?
Protection against infection is meiated by IFN-GAMMA secred by NK and T cells
Describe response to Nocardia infection?
Suppurative response w/ central liquefaction and surrounding granulation and fibrosis but NO GRANULOMAS DEVELOPE
How do IFN-gamma activeated Macrophages kill becteria?
via Nictric Oxide synthase - bactericidal NO
What region of the lung does secondary TB infect?
Apex
TB in HIV depends on the extent of immunosuppression

>300 CD4 cells similar to?

<200 CD4 cells similar to?
>300 ~ Secondary TB

<200 ~ Primary Progressive TB (usually caused by lack of TH1 response -> can lead to Miliary TB)
Are papules of Syphilis painful?
No
Are papules of Chlamydia painful?
No
Are papules of Chancroid (Hemophlous ducreyi) painful?
YES!
Granuloma Inguinale different from chancroid because?
1) Granuloma Inguinale have no/little regional node involvement

2) Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasi - mimics cancer
Hutchinson Triad caused by?
Congential Syphilis (treponema pallidum)

1)deaf
2)blind
3)notched incisors

"hear no evil"
"see no evil"
"taste no evil"
Abscesses consist of?
Mixed baceria flora w/ 2.5 species of bacteria, 1.6 of which are anaerobic & 0.9 of which are aerobic/facultative
Head & Neck abscesses consist of?
Prevotella, Porphyromonas, S aureus & S pyogenes
Abdominal infections consist of?
Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, & Clostridium, & facultative E Coli
Lemierre Syndrome caused by

what is it?
Fusobacerium necrophorum

An infection of the LATERAL PHARYNGEAL SPACE with septic jugular vein THROMBOSIS
How does Tetanus toxin cause spastic paralysis?
Blocks the release of GABA(NT that is responsible for inhibiting motor neuron activity) - cause by exotoxin Tetanospasmin
Explain C difficile's toxicity mech
Toxin A - stimuates chmokine production

Toxin B - (used in DIAGNOSIS) causes cytopathic effects
Borrelia genus is what class of bacteria?
Spirochetes
Name 4 different symptoms of various Chlamydial infections?
1) Urogenital infections

2) Conjuctivitis

3) Lymphogranuloma venereum - sporadic genital infection

4) Trachoma - an ocular infection of children
Describe Epidemic TYPHUS. From what bacteria species?
Spread by?
WIDE RANGE:
From a rash to skin necrosis & gangrene with internal organ hemorrhages

Rickettsia prowazekii

Lice
Rickettsia rickettsii causes
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Candidiasis microscopically seen in what form(s)? Name 3 symptoms

Part of normal flora?
1)YEAST - bind to MANNOSE receptor
2)Pseudohyphae - bind to C3 receptor & Fcgamma receptor
3)Hyphae..rarely

1)VAGINITIS (yeast infection) - often from too many antibiotics

2) DIAPER RASH

3) ORAL THRUSH


YES!

ALSO, if invasive, most common fungal cause of ENDOCARDITIS - occurs in setting of IV drug users and prosthetic valves
Main threat of Cryptocossus neoformans is?

But starts where?
Menigoencephalitis

Lungs - but with little damage


Progression of Lung to CNS kinda like Norcardia
Main virulence factor of Cryptocossus neoformans?
Capsular polysaccharide
Distinguishing Laboratory feature of Cryptocossus neoformans?
Negatively stained w/ India ink
Aspergillus fungus secretes what main toxin? causes?
Aflatoxin (grows on peanuts)

LIVER cancer in Africa
What kind of branching do Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus) produce?
RIGHT-ANGLE branching - invade arterial walls, cause necrosis
What is the threat of Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus) in diabetics?
Spread of fugus to orbit or brain (RHINOCEREBRAL MUCORMYCOSIS)
Name the 4 different species of malaria
1) Plasmodium FALCIPARUM (most severe)

2) Plasmodium VIVAZ

3) Plasmodium OVALE

4) Plasmodium MALARIAE
Describe Plasmodium Life cycle
SPOROZOITES injected by mosquitoe & invade HAPATOCYTES by binding to THROMBOSPONDIN & PROPERDIN RECEPTORS

Form MEROZOITES and vivax/ovale also form latent liver HYPNOZOITES

Merozoites bind to RBC's surface glycophorin molecules

1)TROPHOZOITES

2)SCHIZONT - form new merozoites
How does P. Falciparum cause ischemia? Causes (3)?
RBC adhere to small vessel endothelium by binding to VCAM-1, ICAM-1 & CD36

1)Splenic enlargement

2)Liver enlargement

3)Cerebral Malaria (main cause of malarial death in children)
What's the key distinguishing feature of Babesiosis? Also how is it different from P. falciparum?
TETRADS - "tetrad of babes"

lacks HEMOZOIN pigment; Liver NOT affected
What does Trypanosoma cruzi require to stimulate amastigote developement?

What other organism uses requires this mechanism?

Where are clinical symptoms?

Spread by?
Requires expose to acidic PHAGOLYSOSOME, therefore elicits ^ cytosolic calcium to promote phagosome-lysosome fusion

Leishmanias


CHAGAS DISEASE:
-Myocardial inflammation, cardiomypathy & arrhythmias
-Colon & Esophageal dilation
-Periorbital Edema


Kissing Bugs
Lymphatic Filariasis is cause by what two nematodes?

symptoms range?
Wuchereia Bancrofti & Brugia Malayi

Range from asymptomatic micofilaremia to ELEPHANTIASIS or TRIOPICAL PULMONARY EOSINOPHILIA
Onchocerca volvulus causes? symptoms?
Onchocerciasis

choronic, itchy dermatitis w/ focal darkening or loss of picgemnt/scaling (Leopard/lizard skin)

River BLINDNESS
Giardiasis caused by? symptoms?
Giardia lamblia

Watery Diarrhea (foul smelling)

"Beaver Shit Fever"

STRING TEST
Thyphoid fever caused by? Produces what more than what?
Salmonella Typhi

Splenomegaly more so than Hepatomegaly

Abscesses uncommon
What is syphilis initially characterize by? Terminally?
Primary Syphilis = chancres w/ LymphoPlasmacytic infiltrates & obliterative endarteritis

Tertiary Syphilis (also CONGENTITAL syphilis) have neurologic, cardiovascular problems as well as GUMMATOUS inflammation ( firm and rubbery necrosis; forms amorphous proteinaceous mass with no preserved original architecture)

SYPHILIS = GUMMAS
Can E Coli be a congenital infection? What problems does it cause?
Yes

None
Coin-like, sharply demarcated lesions of the lung are caused by? What is the nature source?
Histoplasma capsulatum

Bird droppings (esp from pigeons) -> ALSO causes Cryptococcus ("CryptoCACA")
Echinococcus produces what disease?
Hydatid disease of Liver, Lungs, or Bone
What fungus mimics TB in the lung, involveing tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system?
Histoplasma capsulatum (very small)
Narrow-based budding
Cryptococcus neoformans
Broad-based budding
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Listeria monocytogenes causes?

Acquired how?
1) Meningitis in immunocompromised/elderly/young

2) diarrhea and nasea

3) Flu-like symptoms

1)Food-borne (unpasteurized milk/cheeses) or 2)Congenital
Burkholderia cepacia is mos often seen in patients with?
Cystic fibrosis who have extensive bronchiectasis
What's unique about Legionella's infection?
HIGH RATIO of MACROPHAGES to Neutrophils
Clostridium tetani's mech?
cleaves synaptobevin (contains inhibitory neurons like GABA and glycine) preventing the NT's release
What bacteria can cause an actue stage of infection causing carditis, meningitis, and migratory arthralgias/myalgias?
Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi
Dengue fever causes?
Hemorrhagic fever, can produce myosistis and bone marrow suppression
Hard genital chancre
Syphilis (primary)
Soft genital chancre
Chancroid
Acute gastroenteritis virus?
Norwalk virus
Acute gastroenteritis virus common in children
Rotavirus
Explosive, watery diarrhea with contaminated seafood
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
What infecs the wall of the urinary bladder or liver and cause severe granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification?

Transmitted by?
Schistosoma hematobium (Nile Valley)

Fresh water SNAILS (trematodes - free swimming cercariae)

Schistosoma hematobium = BLADDER cancer
Pipe-stem fibrosis of liver?
Schistosoma japonicum
Pelvic inflammatory disease may occur from what two organisms?

Does Candida produce vaginitis w/ discharge? PID?
1) N. gonorrhea 2) Chlamydia trachomatis

YES. NO

(vulvovaginal candidiasis; NOT sexually transmitted; vulvar itching & burning w/ white plaque discharge
Natural host for Toxoplasmosis Gondii?
Cat
Erythema chronicum migrans
The rash often (though not always) seen in the early stage of Lyme disease
Trypanosoma cruzi's disease?

Acute symptom?

Chronic?
Chagas Disease

Acute: periorbital swelling; fever, posteror cervical Lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly

Chronic: mycarditis, megacolon, megaesophagus
Mucocutaneous ulcers caused by? Could reult in?
Leishmania braziliensis

Nasal septum perforations
Chronic arthritits
Lyme disease
Myosistis
Trichinella spiralis - poorly cooked pig's meat; also PERIORBITAL edame (like Chagas Dz)
Diabetic/Burn's patient's fungal infection?
Mucormycosis (aka Zygomycosis) - Mucor, Rhizopus, etc

PARANASAL SINUS & vascularized tissue INFECTION -> **THROMBUS!!@@**
Rare pulmonary infection that produces small, focal, mixd inflammatory exudates
Toxoplasma gondii

however MAINLY known for causing chronic abscessing inflamation in the BRAIN

Can also cause infections Mononucleosis

from Kitty cats..
Major cause of diarrhea in infancy? Mech?
Rotavirus

Villous destruction/atrophy -> v absorption of sodium and water
Only protozoa to cause bloody diarrhea? Mech?
Entamoeba Histolytica

lyses epithelium (flask-shaped (teardrop) ulcer
Rubeolla associated with?
Measels
Nocardial infections begin where? Disseminated where?

Most often infects who?
Lungs

CNS

Immunocompromised patients
Unpasteurized milk/cheese
listeria
Watery/NONbloody diarrhea from what two protozoa? what two bacteria?
1)Giardia lamblia (foul-smelling diarrhea)

2)Cryptosporidium

---------------------

1) Vibrio Cholera

2) E Coli
Squamous cell carcinomas see in bladder by what infection?
Schistosoma hematobium
Pseudomona's virulence factors:

1) exotoxin A

2)exoenzyme S

3)Phospholipase C

4)Iron-containing compounds
1)inhibits protein synthesis

2)interferes with host cel growth

3)degrdaes SURFACTANT

4) toxic to endothelial cells
Cysticerosis caused by?
Taenia solium
Vacular invastion occurs with what specific fungal infections?
Aspergillus & Mucormycosis (aka Zygomycosis)
Bone marrow suppression & Hemorrhagic fever & Rash
Dengue fever

DENGUE RASH is characteristically bright red petechia and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest
Hutchingson's Triad found with what?
Congenital Syphilis

because spirocetes crdoss teh placenta in the THIRD TRIMESTER, early still births do not occur
Ulcerating lymph nodes surrounded by a rosy rash
Yersinia pestis


dont confuse w/ Rosy spots on chest and abdomen for Salmonella
Very serious category A agent?
Francisella tularensis

causes Tularemia (aka Rabbit fever)

- a life-threatening pneumonia
Causative agaent for small pox
Variola major
Most common example of trematode? Organism?

Method of evation?

Symptoms? Death caused by?
Schistosoma. Snails (free swimming cerariae penetrate human skin)

coat themselves in host antigens

Portal hyptertension, severe congestive splenomegaly, esophagial varicies, ascites, pulmonary arteritis/Cor pulmonale & glomerulopathy

S. haematobium = BLADDER CANCER

Ruptured esophagial varices & GI hemorrhage

cause death by GI hemorrhage
Where do the amastigotes of Leishmanias proliferate? What is its precusor form called?
Macrophages - Leishmanias replicate in these as amasigotes

Promastigote
What parasite is often confused with Leprosy? Difference?
Leishmaniasis (cutaneous - L. major, aethiopica, mexicana, & braziliensis)

Leishmaniasis DOES ulcerate but leprosy does NOT
Name the 2 visceral leishmanias
L. donovani & chagasi
Are Leishmaniasis intra/extracellular organisms?
OBLIGATE intracellular
What 2 organisms cause symptoms of periorbital edema?
Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas dz) & Trichinella spiralis (trichinosis)