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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are pathogens that cause folliculits?
• staphylococci
• yeast
• pseudomonas
What are furuncles and carbuncles and what bacteria usually causes it?
• subcutaneous abscesses caused by Staphylococcus aureus
• red, tender nodules (may have surrounding cellulits)
• occur most prominently on the face & back
What bacteria causes impetigo?
• group A strep (more common)
• S. aureus
Describe the typical course of impetigo
• intially develop a vesicle on skin surface
• becomes pustular and breaks down
• leaves a characteristics dry, golden crust
What is the treatment for impetigo?
• penicillin
• penicillinase-resistant PCNs (ex. dicloxacillin) is sometimes preferred
Large bullous lesion on the skin suggest bullous impetigo. What is the bacteria that causes bullous impetigo?
S. aureus
What is the bacteria that causes Ecthyma gangrenosum?
gram-negative rods (usually Pseudomonas aueruginosa in neutropenic patients)
What is Ramsay Hunt syndrome?
• infection involving the geniculate ganglia
• presents w/ painful eruption of the ear canal & tympanic membrane w/ ipsilateral facial nerve palsy
Describe the typical course of Ecthyma gangrenosum
• initial lesion is a vesicle or papule w/ an erythematous halo
• then vesicle ulcerates, leaving a necrotic ulcer w/ surrounding erythema or violaceous rim
How should you treat ecthyma gangrenosum?
immediate tx w/ aminoglycoside + 3rd generation cephalosporin (ex. ceftazidime) until results of culture & sensitivity are known
What is a herpetic whitlow?
• painful erythema at the junction of the nail bed & skin
• caused by herpes simplex virus
Immunocompromised children exposed to varicella should receive prophylaxis with what?
zoster immune globulin
What is the treatment for immunocompromised patients and seriously ill patients with varicella?
What is post-herpetic neuralgia?
severe, prolonged burning pain with occasional lightning-like stabs in the involved dermatomes
What is the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia?
• corticosteroids (given during acute episode to shorten the duration of pain)
• Valcyclovir, famciclovir (accelerates the healing of lesions & may decrease occurence)
What is the causative agent of chancroid?
Haemophilus ducreyi
What is the clinical presentation of erysipelas?
• an infection of the superficial layers of the skin
• seen primarily among child & the elderly
• most commonly occurs on the face
• bright red to violaceous rasied lesion with sharply demarcated edges
• can present with fever
What bacteria usually causes erysipelas?
group A streptococci
What is the treatment of erysipelas?
What is cellulitis?
an infection of the deeper layers of skin
Cellulitis has a particular predilection for which part of the body?
lower extremities
What does cellulitis with linear streaks of erythema and tenderness indicate?
lymphatic spread
What are bacterial causes of lower extremity cellulitis?
• Group A ß-hemolytic strep
• Staph aureus (on occasion)
• gram-negative rods (in neutropenic & immunosuppressed patients)
Cellulits of the face or upper extremities, particularly in children, may be caused by which bacteria?
H. flu
Cellulits associated w/ an infected ulceration of the skin indicates additional involvement of what type of bacteria?
• anaerobic bacteria
• gram-negative rods
Crepitus on palpation of the skin indicates what?
• presence of gas in the soft tissue
• can indicate gas-forming anaerobes (ex. Clostridia) or facultative bacteria (ex. strep, gram-negative rods)
What are the 3 principles of treatment for necrotizing soft tissue infections?
• removal of necrotic tissue
• drainage
• approopriate antibiotics
What is necrotizing fasciitis?
• a deep inection of the subcutaneous tissues
• generally occurs after trauma or surgery (but can occur spontaneous in healthy people)
What are bacterial causes of necrotizing fasciitis?
• ß-hemolytic strep
• Clostridia
What is the clinical presentation of necrotizing fasciitis?
• skin may appear normal or may have a red or dusky hue
• pain & presence of subcutaneous swelling
• crepitus, skin necrosis, and dark bullae may develop
What is pyomyositis?
• a deep infection of muscle
• usually caused by S. aureus and occasionally group A ß-hemolytic strep or enteric bacilli
What is myonecrosis?
• a rapidly progressing illness that produce necrosis of muscle
• generally occurs after a contaminated injury to muscle
How can patients with myonecrosis present?
• pt appears toxic and is often delirious
• skin may develop a bronzed-blue discoloration
• crepitus may be present
How is myonecrosis treated?
• emergency surgery w/ wide debridement
• penicillin + clindamycin (to prevent further spread); can used chloramphenicol in PCN-senstive pts
• Zosyn (if gram-negative rods are present)