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64 Cards in this Set

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4 things that effect course of infection
extent of infection, pathogenicity, virulence, host's susceptibility
Bodies normal defenses against infection
normal flora, body system defenses, inflammation
normal flora
large numbers of microorganisms that reside on the surface and deep layers of skin
do normal flora cause disease?
NO
suprainfection
change or elimination of normal bacteria leading to infection
inflammation
the bodies cellular response to infection
What does inflammation do?
delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to interstital tissues
necrotic
dead or dying
Signs of inflammation
swelling, redness, heat, pain, tenderness, loss of function
Signs of systemic inflammation
fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, N/V, lymph node enlarge.
antigen
foreign material
Nosocomial Infection
infection acquired in a healthcare setting
Community acquired infection
infection present when admitted to health care facility
what can decrease incidence of nosocomial infections
hand washing and aseptic tech.
Two types of nosocomial infections
exogenous, endogenous
exogenous infection
one resulting from microorganisms outside the body
endogenous infection
occurs when normal flora becomes altered and an overgrowth happens
aseptic technique
effort to keep ct. as free from exposure to infection causing pathogens as possible
asepsis
absence of disease producing microorganisms
Two types of aseptic technique
medical asepsis, and surgical asepsis
Medical asepsis
procedures used to reduce the number of microo. and prevent spread
another name for clean technique
medical asepsis
Examples of medical asepsis
hand washing, barrier tech, routine cleaning
Surgical Sepsis
prevent microbial contamination
Another name for surgical asepsis
sterile technique
Examples of surgical asepsis
in surgery
When is an area considered contaminated in medical asepsis?
only if it is suspected of containing pathogens
When is an area considered contaminated in Surgical asepiss?
if touched by an object that is not sterile
Can nutrition affect ct. health regarding infection.
yes
What might elevated WBC's suggest?
infection
Normal lab value for WBC count
5000-10000 mm cubed
Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate
up to 15 mm/hr for men and 20 mm/hr women
Normal iron level
60 - 90 ug/100mL
Normal results for urinalysis?
nitrite and leukocyte negative; 0-10 WBC
What does good infection control begin with?
prevention
Some prevention tech to help prevent infection
good nutrition, hygiene, bed rest and immunizations
Cleaning
removal of foreign materials from objects
What does cleaning generally use?
water, detergent, scrubbing
When does cleaning occur?
before disinfection and sterilization
What processes disrupt the internal functions of microorganisms?
disinfection and sterilization
Disinfection
process that eliminates almost all pathogenic organisms on objects
What does disinfection not eliminate
bacterial spore
Sterilization
process that eliminates or destroys all forms of microbial life
How do you control elimination of reservoirs?
eliminate sources of body fluids,drainage, or solutions that harbor microbes
How to control portals of exit
correct handling of body fluids, covering mouth
Most important and basic technique to control transmission of pathogens
hand washing
Do you wash your hands when visably soiled?
yes
do you wash your hands before and after ct. contact?
yes
what do you do before performing invasive procedures?
wash hands
What do you do after removing gloves?
wash hands
how long should you wash your hands for?
10-15 seconds
immunocompromised
compromised immune system
PPE
personal protective equipment
Isolation or barrier protection
use of PPE
two tiers of precautions
standard and transmission based
what do standard precautions apply to?
contact with blood, body fluid, nonintact skin, mucous membranes
3 types of transmission based precautions
airborne, droplet, contact
When do you wear a mask or respirator
splashing or spraying of blood or body fluids may occur
What do masks do?
prevent transmission of infections caused by direct contact with mucous membranes
When is a mask not effective
when it is moist
What do you obtain all cultures with?
sterile equipment
What does bagging articles do?
prevents accidental exposure of personnel to contaminated articles and prevents contamination of surround area
What goes in red colored bags.
biohazards
Order of removing PPE
gloves, masks, gown, eyewear