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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What was the only independent country in the Americas in 1800?
United States of America
These two revolutions caused other people to think about independence for their countries.
American and French
What is the name for the cultural region south of the United States?
Latin America
Name 3 European countries that influenced the cultures of Latin America.
Spain, France, Portugal
List 4 things European colonies in Latin America had in common.
being taken advantage of, growing crops, paying taxes, working in mines
Name the French colony on the western side of Hispaniola where the Latin American independence movement began.
Saint Dominique
Name four European nations that held colonies in Latin America in the 1800s.
France, Portugal, Spain, England
Enslaved people worked on large plantations on Saint Dominique and produced what two crops?
sugar and coffee
In 1791 who led the slaves in a successful revolt against plantation owners on Saint Dominique?
Toussaint L'Ouverture
What term means children born to white plantation owners and African slaves?
By 1796, L'Ouverture had accomplished these two things on Saint Dominique.
1 - abolished slavery
2 - took control of colony's government
What French general tried in 1802 to regain control of Saint Dominique?
Napoleon Bonaparte
Was the slave revolt led by L'Ouverture considered to be successful?
Yes, despite his being captured and taken to France, L'Ouverture's revolution was considered to be the first successful slave revolt in history.
In 1804 the revolt ended and Saint Dominique on Hispaniola was called __________.
In 1808, __________ conquered Spain.
In 1810 which Mexican priest called for the poor people of Mexico to take their lands from Spain?
Miguel Hidalgo
Hidalgo's speech for revolution was called "The _____ of __________."
The Call of Dolores
Name three groups of people who supported Hidlago.
slaves, Native Americans,
Mestizos (part European and part Indian)
First town captured by Hidalgo's army
Two major demands of Hidalgo were ____ and _____
1 end slavery
2 end payment of taxes to Spain
In 1811 the Spanish army caught and executed ___________
Who carried on the revolution after Hidalgo's death?
Jose Maria Morelos
In what year did Morelos declare independence for Mexico and organize the country's first congress?
What did Spanish soldiers do in 1815 to Morelos?
Spanish soldiers captured and killed Morelos in 1815
Name the Spanish army officer who took up the fight for Mexican independence in 1821.
Agustinde Inturbide
What did Inturbide declare in 1822?
In 1822 Inturbide declared himself emperor of Mexico. He was exiled and executed as a traitor in 1824.
Who was the driving force behind South America''s independence movement?
Simon Bolivar
In 1821, Bolivar led rebel armies to victory and freedom in which South American country?
After gaining independence for Venezuela, Bolivar helped which South American countries gain independence?
Colomvia, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru
What was the nickname given to Bolivar?
Liberator of South America
Who lead the revolutions in Chile and Argentina?
Jose de San Martin
Name the four British colonies created in Canada following the French and Indian War in 1763
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Upper Canada, Lower Canada (which became Quebec)
A province is similar to a _____.
What is a group of provinces under one central government?
In 1867 the new confederation in Canada was called _______ of ________.
Dominion of Canada
What was the most important annual event across Europe before the 1700s?
harvest of crops
Name three new forms of technology that caused changes in farming across Europe in the 1700s.
1 iron plows
2. crop rotation
3 fertilizers
What was the period of great technological advances that changed the way goods were made and the way people lived?
Industrial Revolution
Because of the Industrial Revolution ______ instead of _______ became the main focus of economic activity around the world.
industry instead of farming
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin and to what countries did it spread?
IR started in England, spread across Europe and then to the United States
List 5 reasons the IR began n England.
In England: 1 government allowed 1 people to start a business 2. stable government 3 protect property 4 rich supply of raw materials 5 earn money
What were cottage industries?
The IR began in the countryside where peasants produced thread and cloth on spinning wheels and looms in their homes.
What are textiles?
cloth fabric that is either woven or knitted sometimes using cotton or wool
Who invented the flying shuttle and when?
John Kay in 1733
Who invented the spinning jenny and when? What could it do?
James Hargreaves in 1763 invented the spinning jenny that could pin 16 spindles of yarn at once
What did Richard Arkwright invent in 1769
He invented the water frame that made even better thread for fabric
What is a power loom? Who invented it? When?
In 1785 Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom, a machine that sped up the production of textiles tremendously.
Why were large buildings called factories used?
The new machines were too big and expensive for use in cottages and homes
Most of the new machines were used for weaving what?
Why did Britain become involved in triangular trade?
the need for cotton
Explain triangular trade.
America shipped raw cotton to England. Textiles were shipped to Africa and traded for African slaves who were sent to work the American cotton plantations.
Which British city became a major textile manufacturing and shipping city?
What two raw materials were mined in Britain and used to build and power machines?
coal and iron
Who perfected the steam engine in 1769?
James Watt
What did the steam engine do?
provided a steady source of power for factory machines and other inventions
What is a steam-powered engine for use on railways?
In 1825 the first passenger railroad connected which two places?
Scotland and Darlinigton
What was the iron horse?
In 1888 the iron horse was the railroad that linked Calais, France with Istanbul, Turkey
During the 1800s the number of factory-made products _______.
During the 1800s, what percent of the population lived in cities?
20% lived in cities during the 1800s
What were city dwellers paid for their work in factories?
City dwellers used their wages to buy what?
food, clothing and other goods
Who was part of the middle class?
merchants, lawyers, factory owners, bankers
What class was made of people who worked in the cities for wages?
working class
Describe the working conditions in European factories.
long work hours, dangerous conditions, boring repetitive jobs, child labor
To seek to improve conditions in factories what did factory workers organize?
unions which were outlawed by the government until 1824
What ideas did Karl Marx express in his book?
In Das Kapital, Marx expressed his ideas about the differences between the social classes.
What did Marx believe that the workers would do?
Marx believed workers would soon rise up and take control from the upper and middle classes and they should own the factories in which they worked
What is socialism?
a new economic and political system based on Marx' ideas
What is imperialism?
Imperialism is the extension of a nation's power over other lands by military, political, and economic means.
What was Japan pressured to do in the 1850s?
to reopen its borders to foreign ships and trade
What were American ships crossing the Pacific Ocean hunting for during the 1850s?
whales for oil
Why did America want Japan to reopen its borders?
new markets for Am goods
safe rest stops for ships
resupply ships for long voyage
What did Commodore Matthew Perry do in 1853?
steamed four US warships into Edo, Japan, harbor
Japanese name for US warships in 1853
black dragons
Who wrote to Japan that there could be no friendship between US and Japan if Japan refused to open its borders?
US President Millard Fillmore
When did Japan reopen its borders?
In 1854 Perry returned to Japan with 8 warships and opened the door to trade with Japan.
Name four other countries that signed trade agreements with Japan shortly after Japan reopened its borders.
Britain, France, Russia, Holland
How did most Japanese feel about the shogun's decision to open trade with the US and Europe?
They disagreed with opening Japan to trade with the west.
Japanese feudal lords became _____ ______ during the Meiji Restoration
regional governers
In 1868, several Japanese samurai groups lead a revolt against the ______ and returned power to the _____ named _____
emperor Meiji
The new Meiji abolished the _____ system of ________
What did the Meiji government create to replace the samurai?
a modern army
Meiji moved the Japanese capital from Kyoto to Edo and changed its name to ___________.
Most of the political decisions in the Meiji government were made by whom?
What is the name for a large organization that runs the daily business of government?
What was the Charter Oath?
a declaration that stated that all Japanese would be given a say in the government
What is a Diet?
a parliament in the new Japanese government from the constitution adopted in 1889
Under the new Meiji government, Japan would abandon old ______ and seek _____ throughout the world
Why did Japan send hundreds of students to the Uniter States and Europe?
The came to learn about Western cultures.
For what kind of advice did the Japanese pay?
advice on building railways, factories, steamships, telegraph lines
What western styles did the Japanese adopt?
dress, hairstyles, food
colorful Japanese prints called _____ and the style known as ______
With the changes made during the Meiji Restoration, Japan quickly became what kinds of powers?
In the 1890s, why did Japan revise the trade treaties they signed years earlier?
The treaties were unequal - not equal to or in favor of the Japanese.
Which country did Japan invade in 1894?
Korea; Japan refused the Chinese request to remove its troops and soon controlled most of the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan
What were the major events of the Sino-Russian War that began in 1904?
Japan's navy destroyed the Russian navy - Battle of Tsushima Strait and Japan obtained half of Sakhalin Island