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27 Cards in this Set

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life in pre-industrial england
small farms, peasants, farmers, living off land
agricultural revolution
stone walls; enclosures around properties, crop rotation, seed drill
crop rotation
moving crops to replace and use nutrients in the soil
Enclosure movement
farmers buying land, enclosing; it was a barricade
industrialization
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
factors of production
the resources- including land, labor, and capital- that are needed to produce goods and services.
Textile inventions
powerlooms, spinning jenny, water wheel
factories- origins, conditions, legacy
set up to house bulky machines that could produce more. first ones powered by water; had to be built near water sources. caused gruesome working conditions, child labor, poor pay.
Inventions in transportation
steam engine, steamboat, canals, roads became more paved, railroads
steam engine
cheap, convenient source of power. used in mining as early as 1705. james watt improved it by making it faster and more efficient in 1765. used to inspire railroad locomotives.
urbanization
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them.
child labor
children worked 16 hour days, getting one 40 minute lunch break. days usually started at 5 am and ended at 11 pm. children were often whipped if they stopped working to rest.
middle class
social class of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers.
Laissez-faire
the idea that government should not interfere with or regulate industries and businesses.
Adam Smith and capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit. strong supporter of this idea, helped it take form.
socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
communism
an economic system in which all means of production- land, mines, factories, railraods, and businesses- are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
proletariat
the 'have-nots', or workers.
utilitarianism
the theory, proposed by jeremy bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
union
voluntary associations for workers so they could press for reforms.
collective bargaining
negotiatons between workers and their employers, engaged in by unions.
strike
refusing to work for a cause
combination acts
1799 and 1800: outlawed unions and strikes. repealed in 1824
AFL
American Federation of Labor. several unions that joined together.
Factory act
law that made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old. children 9-12 couldnt work more than 8 hours a day. 13-17 not more than 12 hours.
mines act
passed in 1842, prevented women and children from working underground.
ten hours act
passed in 1847, limited work hours to 10 hours a day for women and children who worked in factories