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110 Cards in this Set

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ABSOLUTE TECHNIQUES (CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE, BARS)
methods of subjective performance assessment that indicate an ratee's performance in absolute terms (i.e., not in terms of performance of other employees)
ADVERSE IMPACT/80% RULE
result of discrimination against indvd protected by Title VII, use of employment practice; use of selection or employment results in higher rejection rates for legally protected indvds than for the majority group,this exists; 80% rule can be used to determine if it is occuring
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT
legislation that requires companies with 25 or more emmployees to avoide using procedures that discriminates against people with physical or mental disabilities and when a disabled person is able to perform the essential fxns of a job, to consider the person qualified and to make "reasonable accomodations"
BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS
factor analyses revealed five basic personality traist--neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness--conscientiousness found to be best predictor of job performance acress idfferent jobs, job settings, and criterion measures
BRAINSTORMING
method of generating creating ideas in which indvd or group encouaged to freely suggest idea or though without criticism, evaluation or censorship; indvds brainstorm better alone than in groups
CENTRALIZED NETWORKS
communication network; best for simple tasks
DECENTRALIZED NETWORKS
communication network; best for complex tasks and associated with greater satisfactor
COMPARABLE WORTH
notion that jobs should be paid on the basis of their intrinsic worth in order to overcome salary injustices (e.g., pay difference for male vs. female jobs)
CONSIDERATION AND INITIATING STRUCTURE
Ohio State University studies found that behavior of leaders can be described in terms of consideration (person-centered style) and initiating structure (task-oriented style)
CONTINGENCY THEORY
Fiedler's theory of leadership effectiveness with proposes that effectiveness is related to an interaction btn the leader's style and the nature (favorableness) of the situation; low LPC leaders most effective in very unfavorable or very favorable situation; high LPC better in moderately favorable situation
CRITERION CONTAMINATION
a bias when rater's knowledge of an indvd's performance on a predictor affects how the raters rate him/her on the criterion; can artifically inflate the criterion-related validity coefficient
CRITICAL INCIDENTS
specific behaviors that are associated with outstanding and poor job performance; when incoporated into rating scales can help reduce rater biases
DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY
exists when validity coefficient of a predictor is significantly different for one subgroup than another
FAIRNESS
unfair hiring, placement, or related discrimination against a miniority group that occurs when members of a minority group consistently score lower on a predictor but perform approx the same on the criterion as members of the majority group
DOWNSIZING/SURVIVOR SYNDROME
organization reduce costs by reducing work force and/or eliminating entire divisions or businesses; associated with depression, anxiety, guilt, stress-related illnesses, and decreased job satisfaction and organizational commitment
EQUITY THEORY
theory of motivation that proposes that an employee's motivation is related to her perception that her input/outcome ratio is similar to the input/outcomes rations of other comparable jobs; perception of underpayment is associated with decreased satisfaction, motivation, and performance
ERG THEORY (ALDERFER)
Alderfer's mofication of Maslow's theory which distinguishes btn 3 basic needs--existence, relatedness, growth
EXPECTANCY THEORY
motvational theory that regards job motivation as the result of 3 elements: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence; highest movation occur when an employee perceives that high job effort results in high task succuss (high expectancy), that high success leads to the attainment of certain goals (high instrumentality) and that outcomes are desirable (positive valence)
FLEXITIME
alternative work schedule that allows workers to choose the time they will begin and end work; associated with increased satisfaction and lower absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover
FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS (LEWIN)
model of change, organizational change involves 3 stages--unfreezing, changing, and refreezing
FORMATIVE EVALUATION
conducted while a training program is being developed, and results are used to make necessary modifications to the program
SUMMATIVE EVALUATION
conducted after a program has been implemented in order to assess its outcome
FOUR-DAY WORKWEEK
alternative work schedule that involves four 9 to 10 hour days; increased worker satisfaction and lower absenteeism
FOUR LEVELS OF CRITERIA (KIRKPATRICK)
for evaluating the effects of a training program--reaction, learning, behavioral, and results
FRAME-OF-REFERENCE TRAINING
type of rater training that emphasizes the multidimensional nature of job performance and distinguishing between good and poor work-related behaviors
GOAL SETTING THEORY
theory of job motivation that indevd will be more willing to achieve goals when they have explicitly accepted those goals and are committed to learn; proposes that assigning specific, moderately difficult goals and providing employees with feedback about their accomplishments of goals increases productivity
GROUP GOALS
teams working on interdependent tasks, more effective than individual goals and a combo of the two may be no more effective than group goals alone
GROUP REWARDS
categorized as either cooperative or competitive; when interdependence is high, a cooperative reward system is most effective; but interdependence is low, competitive system leads to greater motivation and productivity
GROUP NORMS/
standard rules of conduct that maintain uniformity of behavior among group members;
IDIOSYNCRASY CREDITS
positive sentiments within a group toward a member that allow him/her to occassionally deviate from group norms; a person accumulates this when he/she has a hx of conforming to norms, has contributed in some special way to the group, or has served as the group leader
GROUP POLARIZATION
the tendency of groups to make more extreme decisions than indvd members
RISKY SHIFT PHENOMENON
tendency to make risky decisions
GROUPTHINK
mode of group thinking which group members' desires for unanimity and cohesiveness override their ability to realistically appraise or determine alternative courses of axtion; can be alleviated by encouraging dissent, having someone play devil's advocate, and refraining from reaching a decision or solution too quickly
HAWTHORNE EFFECT
refers to an inmprovement in job performance resulting from participation in a research study (the novelty of the situation, increased attention, etc)
HOLLAND (RIASEC, DIFFERENTIATION)
emphasizes the importance of good personality/work envnt match and distinguishes btw 6 personality types (RIASEC); personality-envnt match is most accurate as a predictor of job-related outcomes when the indvd exhibits a high degree of differentiation-i.e., has clear interests as evidenced by a high score on 1 of the 6 and low scores on the others: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional
IDENTICAL ELEMENTS
method used to increase transfer of training; involves maximizing the similarity btn the learning and performance envts
INCREMENTAL VALIDITY
increase in decision making accuracy resulting from the use of a new predictor; maximized when the selection ratio is low and the base rate is moderate
CHANGE AGENT
idvd who is responsible for guiding the the change effort
INTERNAL CHANGE AGENT
member of the organization is already familiar with the company's culture, norms, and power structure and has a personal interest in the change effort
EXTERNAL CHANGE AGENT
consultant; see situation more objectively and bring in a new perspective, to be better received b/c of impartiality, likely to have greater influence and status, more willing to take risks
JOB ANALYSIS
systematic process of determining how a job differes from other jobs in terms of required responsibilities, activities, and skills; first step is dvmpt of predictor criterion; used for identifying training needs, developing job description or job specification, and determing causes of accidents
JOB EVALUATION
conducted for purpose of setting wages and salaries
JOB BURNOUT
caused by accumulated stress associated with overwork; primary symptoms are feeling of low personal accomplishment, cynicism, and emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion; early sign is sudden increase in work effort and hours without an increase in productivity
JOB CHARACTERISTIC MODEL
describes a job in terms of 5 core dimensions that have an impact on 3 "critical psychological states" (meaningfulness, autonomy, and performance feedback) that in turn affect motivation, quality of work performance, satisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover
JOB ENRICHMENT
method of job redesign in which job is made more challenging and rewarding in order to increase job motivation and satisfaction; based on Herzberg's 2 factor theory
JOB ENLARGEMENT
involves increasing the number and variety of tasks included in a job without increasing the worker's autonomy, responsibility, etc
JOB SATISFACTION (AGE, PAY, PERFORMANCE, TURNOVER)
high level of job satisfaction associated with certain worker and job characteristics: older employees, high level employees, and employees whose jobs allow them to use their skills and abilities tend to be most satisfied
PAY AND JOB SATISFACTION
complex, related to perception that one is being paid fairly than to actual amt of pay; correlation btn satisfaction and performance is positive but low (.30); strongest relationship is satisfaction and turnover (.-40)
KRUMBOLTZ (SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY)
proposes that a person's career path is determined by an interaxn betn genetic endowment, envntal conditions, learning experiences, and task approach skills
LEADERLESS GROUP DISCUSSION
type of managmt dvpmt training that presents 4-8 participants with problems that they must solve in a specified period of time; no indvd is designated as leader; instead, participants are given opportunity to demonostrate leadership, communication, decision-making, and interpersonal skills in a relatively unstructured setting
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE (SCHEIN)
described in 3 basic levels--artifacts, espoused values and beliefs, and basic underlying assumptions
MEDIATION
3rd party intervention in which mediator cannot dictate an agreement betn disputants but helps clarify the issues, facilitates communication, and offers alternatives and solutions
ARBITRATION
has more authority than mediator
MODEL OF TRAINING (JOB ROTATION, BEHAVIORAL MODELING, VESTIBULE TRAINING)
training in organizations can be on the job or off the job; job rotation is example of on the job, behavioral modeling and vestible training are examples of off the job
MODELS OF INDIVIDUAL DECISION-MAKING (SIMON)
rational-economic model, decision making attempt to maximize benefits by systematically searching for the best solution
BOUNDED RATIONALITY (ADMINISTRATIVE; SIMON)
proposes that rational decision making is limited by internal and external constraints so that decision makers often satisfy rather than optimize
MULTIPLE REGRESSION and MULTIPLE CUTOFF
methods for combining predictor scores; MR is compensatory; MC is noncompensatory
NATIONAL CULTURE (HOFSTEDE)
culture of nations can be described in terms of 5 dimensions--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, and long term orientation
NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
employees with high nACH usually choose tasks of moderate difficulty and risk, apparently b/c success on these tasks depends more on effor than on uncontrollable factors; prefer frequent, concrete feedback, and motivation does not depend on money view money as rewards and source of feedback and recognition
NEED HIERARCHY THEORY (MASLOW)
proposes 5 basic needs arranged in heirarchical order such that a need higher in the hierarchy doesn't serve as a motivation until all lower needs have been fulfilled; not well supported in research
NEEDS ASSESSMENT
systematic process of determining job performance requirments and employee performance deficits to identify training needs and the content of training programs; includes organizational, task, person, and demographic analyses
NORMATIVE (DECISION-MAKING) MODEL
theory of leadership that focuses on decision-making strategies and proposes the best strategy (autocratic, consultative, group) depends on the nature of the situation; provides a decision tree to help leaders choose the best strategy
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
refers to strength of an employee's identification with the organization; commitment seems to have minimal effects on productivity, a high degree of affective commitment is related to higher levels of motivation and satisfaction, lower rates of absenteeism and turnover, and greater willness to make sacrifices for company
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
variety of techniques and strategies aimed at the planned change of an organization using behavioral science principles and theories
ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTIC
worker's evaluation of organizational policies and procedures are often based on their perceived fairness (justic); 3 types--procedural, distributive, and interactional
OVERLEARNING
practicign or studying beyond the point of mastery; associated with enhanced recall
PATH-GOAL THEORY
theory of leadership that proposes that the best leadership style (directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented) depends on certain characteristics of the workder and the work and helps employees see how achieving organizational goals will help them attain individual goals
PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT
degree to which a person's values and beliefs match those of the organization culture; a good fit is associated with a number of benefits
GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY,
CONSIDERED TO BE BEST PREDICTOR OF JOB PERFORMANCE ACCOSS DIFFERENT JOBS AND SETTINGS
BIODATA
good predictors, especially if items are empirically derived
INTERVIEWS
common predictor in organization but generally have low levels of reliability and validity
WORK SAMPLES
require indvd to perform task or operation actually required by the job
ASSESSMENT CENTER
evaluate and train applicants and current employees at the management or administrative level and incoporate a variety of techniques (e.g., interviews, objective tests, and situational tests)
PRODUCTIVITY and COHESIVENESS
high cohesiveness is associated with greater consistency in productivity but whether this results in high or low performance depends on the nature of the norms; cohesiveness is low group norms have less impact so that regardless of the norms, group productivity is usually in the moderate range
PROCESS CONSULTATION
organizational dvpmt technique in which a consultant helps members of the organization perceive, understand, and identify ways of improving the processes that are undermining the interaction and the organization's effectiveness
QUALITY CIRCLES
consists of small voluntary group of employees who work together on a particular job and meet regularly to discuss job-related problems and solutions; representatives of the quality circle then present their solutions to management
RATER BIASES
contaminating factors in the rating process related to the way that the rater makes rating; includes central tendency bias, leniency/strictness bias, and the halo effect; best way to reduce is provide raters with adequate training, especially training that helps them observe an distinguish betn different levels of performance (e.g., frame-of-reference training)
REALISTIC JOB PREVIEW
method of providing accurate information about the job and the organiazation to job applicants; primary goal is to reduce turnover by reducing disillusionment and increasing satisfaction
RELATIVE TECHNIQUES (PAIRED COMPARISON, FORCED DISTRIBUTION)
measures of job performance that compare an employee's performance to that of other employees
SCIENTIFIC MANAGMENT
Taylor; involves 1) scientifically analyzing jobs into their component parts and then standardizing those parts 2) scientifically selecting, training, and placing workers in jobs for which they are mentally and physically suited, 3) fostering cooperation btwn supervisors and workers to minimize deviation from scientific methods of work 4) having managers and workers assume responsibility for their own share of their work
SELF-MANAGED WORK TEAMS
autonomous work groups whose members are trained in the skills needed to effectively perfrom the group task; their fxn is to make hiring, budget, and other decision previously made by managers
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Hersey and Blanchard's model; best leadership sytle depends on job maturity of workers which is a fxn of ability and willingness to assume responsibility; distinguishes btwn--telling, selling, participating, and delegating
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
Bandura's theory of motivation that emphasizes the self-regulation of behavior and proposes that self-regulation involves 4 processes-goal-setting, self-observation, self-evaluation, and self-reaction
SOCIAL FACILITATION
refers to increase in learning and performance that occurs in the presence of others; most likely to occur when the task is simple or well-learned
SOCIAL INHIBITION
decrease in learning and performance that occurs in the presence of others; most likely to occur when the task is new or complex
SOCIAL LOAFING
tendency for indvd to work less when acting as a member of a team than when working alone; can be alleviated by ensuring that the indvd's contribution is identified and rewarded
STAGES IN GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Tuckman and Jensen; 5 stages--forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
STATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Chin and Benne; classified in terms of 3 basic types--rational-empirical, normative-educative, power-coercive
STRESS (MACHINE PACED TASK_
jobs most likely to lead to stress-related problems are those that give workers little control over their tasks or work conditions
SUPER (SELF-CONCEPT, CAREER MATURITY, LIFE CAREER RAINBOW)
Super's life space life-span theory, selection of job involves finding a match betn a job an done's self-concept (which reflects values, personality, interest), emphasizes career maturity--ability to cope with the developmental tasks of one's life stage
LIFE CAREER RAINBOW
relates an indvd's major life roles to 5 life stages and is useful for helping career counselee recognize the impact of current and future roles and stages on career planning
SURVEY FEEDBACK
an OD intervention that focuses on identifying employee attitudes and perceptions
TAYLOR-RUSSELL TABLES
used to estimate predictor's incremental validity when the validity coefficient, selection ratio, and base rate are known
SELECTION RATIO
ratio of number of jobs to job applicants
BASE RATE
proportion of successful decisions without the new predictors
THEORY X
McGregor Theory X--managers believe that employees dislike work and avoid it whenever possible and aar msut be directed and controlled
THEORY Y
McGregor--managers view work as being "as natural as play" and assume that employees are capable of self-control and self-direction
TIEDEMAN AND O'HARA (EGO IDENTIFY DEVELOPMENT)
views career identify development as an aspect of ego identify development
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
management theory that emphasizes customer service, employee involvement (especially teamwork), and continuing improvement
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
influential leaders who are characterized by their ability to recognize need for change, create vision for change, and effectively executing the change
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS
tend to maintain status quo and rely on rewards and punishment to motivate behavior
TWO-FACTOR THEORY (HERZBERG)
theory of motivation and satisfaction; places statisfaction and disssatisfaction on two separate continua; motivator factors (increased autonomy, responsibility, control, etc) contribute to satisfaction and motivation when they are present: hygiene factor (pay, pleasant working condition)s contribute to dissatisfaction when absent; basis of job enrichment
TYPES OF GROUP TASKS
addicitve, compensative, disjunctive, and conjunctive
WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT
conflict caused by incompatible work and family role demands
WORK SHIFTS
of 3 fixed shifts, graveyard shift is associated with most problems; however, may be alleviated if worker volunterily chooses the graveyard shift; rotating shift-associated with more problems than fixed shifts (e.g., higher accident rates, lower productivity)
YERKES-DODSON LAW
predicts that the highest levels of learning and performance are associated with moderate levels of arousal, especially when moderate arousal is coupled with moderate task difficulty
PAIRED COMPARISON
technique where rater compares each ratee with every other ratee in pairs on one or several dimensions of job performance; disadvantage: becomes increasingly cumbersom to use as number of ratees increases
FORCED DISTRIBUTION
similar to "grading on the curve" involves assigning ratees to a limited number of categories based on predefined normal distribution on one or more dimensions of job performance; disadvantage: yielf erroneous data if the job performance of ratees is not actually normally distribted
GRAPHIC RATING SCALE
requires rater to indicate on a Likert-type scale the ratee's level of performance on one or several dimensions; susceptible to rater biases, but accuracy improves when points on the scale are anchored with critical incidents
BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALE (BARS)
1)identified several indpt dimensions of job behavior 2) several behavioral anchors, 3) order and number the behavioral anchors within each dimension from least to most positive; rater choses one behavior in each dimension that best decribes; easy to use; increase interrater reliability and may reduce rater biases; disadvantage: amt of time to dvp scale