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17 Cards in this Set

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Epitope
naturally ocurring antigenic determinant
Example: protein
Hapten
artificial, made in laboratory
Ex: di-nitro phenol (DNP)
(Conjugate Hapten Carrier Complex
too small to stimulate an immune response, so complex it w/ a protein to make it large enough to be recognized
Intrinsic Antigen Characteristics
***Characteristics of the antigen***
-Must be "perceived" as foreign
-Chemical composition
-Molecular weight
-Molecular or structural complexity
-Digestibility
Extrinsic Antigen Characteristics
***Factors that are different from the antigen***
-the host itself
-the route of exposure
-the dose
-the incorporation of adjuvants
Adjuvants
enhance an immune response
Cross Reactions
-Similar Shape
-Shared antigenic determinants
Vaccines
-A preventative measure
-Artificially active acquire immunity
Infection
the colonization or establishment of microorganisms in or on the body
Intoxication
Produces toxins in the body
ex: diptheria & tetanus produce toxins in the blood
Extracellular parasitism
Organism enters the body but does not invade hte cells (HMI)
Intracellular parasitism
Organism enters the cells to cause an infection (CMI)
-Viruses
Kinds of Vaccines
-Kill or inactivate the causative agent
-Living mircroorganisms / active viruses but avirulent (attenuated)
- Sub-unit vaccines --> take just a portion
Subunit Vaccines
-Use "component" of causative agent
-Purify & treat so as to remove toxicity
-Purify "structural" elements
-Can be problematic
Recombinant Vaccines
1.) Recombinant antigen vaccines

2.) Recombinant vector vaccines

3.) DNA vaccines
Recombinant Antigen Vaccine
-The plasmid with the gene encoding hte protective Ag is placed into a yeast cell (saccharomyces cerevisiae) where it causes the production of the protective Ag

-Only the protective Ag made from the cell is used as teh vaccine injected in hte patient
Recombinant Vector Vaccine
-Inject the entire cell, not just the protective Ag, into hte patient

-Use many cell types

-Use virus / bacteria as a shuttle bus or vector to take the gene into hte host to be expressed