Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
naturally ocurring antigenic determinant
Example: protein
artificial, made in laboratory
Ex: di-nitro phenol (DNP)
(Conjugate Hapten Carrier Complex
too small to stimulate an immune response, so complex it w/ a protein to make it large enough to be recognized
Intrinsic Antigen Characteristics
***Characteristics of the antigen***
-Must be "perceived" as foreign
-Chemical composition
-Molecular weight
-Molecular or structural complexity
Extrinsic Antigen Characteristics
***Factors that are different from the antigen***
-the host itself
-the route of exposure
-the dose
-the incorporation of adjuvants
enhance an immune response
Cross Reactions
-Similar Shape
-Shared antigenic determinants
-A preventative measure
-Artificially active acquire immunity
the colonization or establishment of microorganisms in or on the body
Produces toxins in the body
ex: diptheria & tetanus produce toxins in the blood
Extracellular parasitism
Organism enters the body but does not invade hte cells (HMI)
Intracellular parasitism
Organism enters the cells to cause an infection (CMI)
Kinds of Vaccines
-Kill or inactivate the causative agent
-Living mircroorganisms / active viruses but avirulent (attenuated)
- Sub-unit vaccines --> take just a portion
Subunit Vaccines
-Use "component" of causative agent
-Purify & treat so as to remove toxicity
-Purify "structural" elements
-Can be problematic
Recombinant Vaccines
1.) Recombinant antigen vaccines

2.) Recombinant vector vaccines

3.) DNA vaccines
Recombinant Antigen Vaccine
-The plasmid with the gene encoding hte protective Ag is placed into a yeast cell (saccharomyces cerevisiae) where it causes the production of the protective Ag

-Only the protective Ag made from the cell is used as teh vaccine injected in hte patient
Recombinant Vector Vaccine
-Inject the entire cell, not just the protective Ag, into hte patient

-Use many cell types

-Use virus / bacteria as a shuttle bus or vector to take the gene into hte host to be expressed