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141 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In the innate immune response what are the signs of infection?
redness, heat, pain, swelling
What causes warming and reddening of the skin?
cytokines which induce vascodilation of capillaries (more blood flowing to the surface)
What causes swelling (aka?)?
Aka=edema by cytokines causing vasodilation which cause movement of fluid into connective tissue
What causes pain?
the innate immune system's response by releasing cytokines which causes vasodilation, fluid movement to connective tissue, and thus increased pressure on the nerves causing pain
What happens with the innate immune system to allow movement of WBC into the tissue?
through the innate immune response the vascular endothelium allowded movement of WBC into tissue
What are the principle characteristics of the innate immune response?
1-rapid response
3-limited number of specificities
4-constand during response
What are the principle characteristics of the adaptive immune response?
1-slow response
3-highly selective specifications
4-improves during response
how is diversity created for receptors?
Receptors are coded by non-conventional genes. diversity generated by splicing and rearrangement
What are the main purposes of the adaptive immune response system?
1. expand clones to create the memory mechanism
2. allow rapid proliferation
3. provides long term immunity for non-mutating virsuses
What do lymphocytes do?
provide immunilogical memory, specific for pathogen (adaptive immune system)
What is the difference between primary and secondary immune response systems?
primary=initial exposure
secondary=subsequent exposure
What are leukocytes?
What are leukocytes derived from?
hematopoietic cells
What is the process that generates cells called?
What is a megakaryocyte?
giant multi-nucleated cell, that will explode. involved in the formation of palettes
What are the characteristics of small lymphocytes?
produce antibodies (B cells) or cytotoxic and helper functions (T cells)
-1 nucleus
-no granules
-not much cytoplasm
What are the characteristics of a plasma cell?
fully differentiated form of B cells that secretes antibodies
(contains golgi apparatus, lots of cytoplasm)
What is a natural killer cell?
kills cells infected with certain viruses
-innate IR=not specific
-has granules, but NOT granucyte
What is a neutrophil?
-phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms
-should have a lot more mature in blood
What is an esosinophil?
-killing of antibody-coated parasites through release of granule contents
-bright red granules
what is a basophil?
-tons of granules
what is a dendritic cell?
activation of T cells and initation of adaptive IR
-presents antigens to T cells, which cannot recognize them on their own
What is a mast cell?
expulsion of parasites from body through release of granules containing histamine and other active agents
-parasities and allergies
What is monocyte?
circulating precursor cell to macrophage
-kidney shaped (few granules)
What is a macrophage?
phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms. activation of T cells and intiation of IR
What is megakarocyte?
multi-nucleus cell
platelet formation, would repair
What is erythrocyte?
oxygen transport
What is a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell?
-capable of self-renewal
-can become progenitor cells that commit to a specific lineage (erythroid, lymphoid, myeloid)
What does hematopoiesis develp first, etc?
1-fetal yolk sac (early)
2-fetal liver & spleen (middle_
3-BM (late)
Where do hematopoietic stell cells reside?
bone marrow
What is Tuberculosis caused by?
What is ringworm caused by?
What is food poisoning caused by?
What is smallpox caused by?
What is the flu caused by?
What is sleeping sickness caused by?
What is leishmaniasis caused by?
What is thrush, systemic candidiasis caused by?
What is ascariasis caused by?
parasite (worm)
What is schistosomiasis caused by?
parasite (worm)
What is HIV/AIDS caused by?
What is bathed in muscus and what is its cause?
Muscosal surfaces: epithelia lining GI, respiratory, and UG tract
Purpose: contains enzymes, glycoproteins and proteoglycans
2. protect epithelial cells from damage and limit infection
What is in the respiratory tact? urogenital tract? gastrointestinal tract?
1. sinuses, trachea, lungs
2. kidneys, bladder, vagina
3. oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestines
When the innate immune system recruits effector mechanisms, what cells is it recruiting?
effector cells, complement (plasma proteins)
What is orchestrated by the adaptive immune response system?
What is another big difference between the innate and adaptive immune response systems?
adaptive has MEMORY
what do progenior cells give rise to?
large numbers of lymphocytes each with a different specificity
When a pathogen comes into contact with a lymphocyte, what happens?
the lymphocyte is activated and proliferates and differentiates to form a clone of effector cells to elimenate the pathogen (adaptive IR)
In the adaptive IR when the lymphocytes are multiplying, what is the use of this?
memory, stronger and faster IR, long term immunity for some viruses
What are the characteristics of a lymphocyte?
-subset of wbc
-provides immunological memory
-specific to pathogen
Where do all cells of the immune system originate?
-pluripotenet hematopoietic stem cells
What is hematopoiesis? and what does it develop first?
process of blood formation
1. fetal yolk sac
2. fetal liver and spleen
3. bone marrow
List the different classes of leukocytes from most abundant to least.
1. Neutrophil
2. lymphocyte
3. monocyte
4. eosinophil
5. basophil (will see more if there is an infection)
What do neutrophils do and after they die what happens to them?
neutrophils engulf and kill mircoorganisms after traveling and entering infected tissue. they die in the tissue and macrophages engulf and degrade them
Where are neutrophils stored until needed in infected tissue?
bone marrow
How does signal transduction work?
bacteria's components bind to macrophage's signal receptors, which induces the syntesis of inflammatory cytokines
What does the lymphoid tissue do?
specialized tissues to orchestrate immune system
What are the major sites of the lymphoid tissue?
BM, thymus, spleen, adenoids, tonsils, appendix, lympth nodes, and peyer's path
What does the primary lymphoid tissue do and what sturctures are part of this class?
lymphocytes develop and mature
BM & thymus
What is part of the secondary/peripheral lymphoid tissue
(all except thymus & BM)
lympth nodes, peyer's path in small intestine, adrenoids, spleen, tonsils, appendix
Describe the functions of the lympth nodes (LN)?
they lie at the end of lympathic vessels to collect plasma that has leaked out of the blood vessels and forms lympathic fluid which is eventually returned to blood via thoracic duct
What does the thoracic duct do?
allow the lympth nodes to retern lymphatic fluid to the blood
Describe the lympth node function in fighting infection?
lymphocytes are activated in 2nd degree lymphoid tissue, the draining LN receives fluid from the infection which arrived via the afferent lymphatic vessels with dendritic cells (unite to form single efferent vessel)
Describe the adapt immune response happening in the lympth node?
1.neive lymphocytes circulate in blood and enter the lympth nodes through artery, while dendritic cells via afferent lymphatic vessel enter with bacteria
2. move into T cell area, dendritic cells activate T cells
3. Helper T cells drive B cell differentiation
4. macrophage engulfs bacteria
5. B-cells differentiates into a plasma cell which secretes Antibody
6. cytotoxic T cells kill cells infected with intercellular pathogen/virus (need to make antibody)
7. drains out through the efferent lymphatic vessel to return to infection
What are the functions of the spleen?
*If LN fails to remove pathogen and it enters the blood it will end up in spleen*
1.Filters blood-removes aged RBC
2. Functions like LN-infectious agents removed, activate lymphocytes
Where does red and white pulp reside and how does it appear on the slide?
the spleen
Red pulp: small black dot
white pulp: large whiter circles
What structures are present in the white pulp section?
1. PALS-mostly T cells
2. central arteriole
3. marginal sinus
What does MALT, BALT, & GALT stand for?
MALT=muscle, more diffuse
GALT=gut, tonsils, adenoids, appendix, peyer's patch
What does Ig and TCR stand for? What are their characteristics?
Immunoglobin and T-cell receptor
-restricted to vertebrates
-expressed as cell-surface recognition molecules
-they have specificity for the Ag they bidn
What are the two highly variable molecules of adaptive immuntity?
Ig and TCR
What is an antigen?
molecules/virus partice, etc. that contains structure that is recognized and bound by an Ig or TCR
What is an antigen receptor?
Ig and TCR
What is an antigentic determinant/epitope?
part of antibody bound by Ig and TCR
Describe an immunglobulin molecule?
-2 polypeptide chains (H and L)
-Variable region (AA region varies between Ig)
-Constant region (identital from one Ig to another)
-Ag binds variable region
-surface Ig bound to transmembrane regions
What is the similary between Ig and Ab?
Ab are secreted Ig that lack transmembrane protein
What are the 5 classes of isotypes of Ig?
What the cells different if they have the same constand region?
No, they would be in the same class
Describe a TCR.
alpha and beta chains
-ALWAYS anchored in T cell membrane
-variable & constant region
-variable region forms Ag binding site
How is Ig and TCR diversity created?
-gene rearrangement of separate gene segments
-production of a functional gene requires alignment of appropriate gene segments
What is somatic recombination?
Gene rearrangement in B and T cells
Prior to rearrangement Ig and TCR genes what configuration are they in?
What is the difference between B and T cell pathogen recognition?
B cells recognize intact pathogens (Ab bind DIRECTLY to native structures)
T cells recognize pathogen-derived particles in MHC
What is the MHC stand for?
Major Histocompatibility complex
What is the Major Histocompatibility complex used for?
in order to present an antigen to the T cells (B cells do not need this)
What are the cells that carry MHC called?
Ag peptide complex are antigen presenting cells (APC)
What are the differences between MHC class I and II molecules?
Class I: present peptide derived from introcellular pathogens
-Present on almost ALL cell types
Class II: Present peptides from pathogens present in extracellular milieu
-taken up by phagocytic cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells)
What does polymorphism deal with?
Major cause of tissue rejection (donor v receipient
List the process of MHC complex I (intercellular Ag)
1. Virus infect cell
2. Viral proteins synthesized in cytoplasm
3. peptide fragments of viral proteins bound by MHC class I in ER
4. Bound peptides transported by MHC complex I to the cell surface
5. Cytotoxic T cell recognizes complex of viral peptide with MHC class I and kills infected cell
List the process of MHC complex II (extracellular Ag) with Th1
1. Macrophage engulfs/degrades bacterium, producing peptides
2. Bacterial peptides bound by MHC class II in VESICLES
3. Bacterial peptides transported by MHC complex II to the cell surface
4. Th1 recognizes complex of peptide antigen with MHC complex II and activates macrophage
(ready now to make clones)
List the events of MHC complex class II with Th2 cells.
1. Cell surface Ig of B cells binds bacteria and engulfs/degrades to peptides
2. Bacterial peptides bound by MHC class II in vesicles
3. Bound peptides transported by MHC complex class II to the cell surface
4. Th2 cell recongizes complex of peptide antigen with MHC class II and activates B cell
(B cell will become plasma cell)
What is cell distruction called?
Where are B cells educated? T cells?
B cells-BM
T cells-thymus
What is the use of clonal expansion?
-Expansion of specific clones of lymphocytes in response to pathogen (ensures specificity)
-used to prevent an IR against "self-antigens"
Describe how T cells are selected to send out?
1. In the Thymus: T cell progeniters give rise to billions of thymocytes, each with a different T cell receptor
2. Thymocytes are POSITIVELY selected by epithelial cells in the CORTEX of the thymus (if it can recognize MHC class I)
3. Positively selected thymocytes survive and divide
4. Positively selected thymocyte NEGATIVELY selected in the thymus medulla
5. Clones surviving negative selection (did not bind too tightly to MHC class I) leave the thymus for circulation
What is the process of Neutralization?
1. bacterial toxins attach to cell with receptors for these
2. Ab comes and attach
3. ingestion and destruction by phagocyte
What is the process of Opsonization? How is complement involved?
1. Bacteria in extracellular space
2. Ab attach to bacteria
3. ingestion/degrade by phagocyte
Complement: can attach to initiate effector mechanisms of the innate IR
What is the point of Neutralization?
cover up binding site
What is the point of Opsonization?
coating around bacteria
What does the Primary IR do? Secondary?
results in memory clones
Secondary: Quicker, more robust because already have memory cells from primary rxn
What is SCID?
An immunodeficiency disease: inherited, Leathal, lacks B and T cells
What is DiGeorge syndrome?
lack thyms, immunodeficiency diseases, inherited
What is a pahtogen induced immunodeficiency diseases?
What are some unwanted effects of adaptive immunity?
1. Allergies: making Ab IgE to innocuous substances
2. Autoimmune disease: chromic immune responses that gradually affect the target tissue/organ
3. Graft rejection: Tissue/organ transplantation or Bm transplants (must be matched properly)
What are some examples of a autoimmune dieseases?
Celiac disease, RA, Graves
What cell produces antibodies? other characteristics?
B cell (secreted form of Ig)
circulate in blood (makes up a lot of the plasma)
Function: to bind pathogens and their products
What are molecules that an antibody attaches to called?
-can be macro molecule
-usually protein or CHO
-binding of Ah can disable pathogen and make it more suspetible to destruction
How is a B cell activated?
Prior to activation: holds a membrane bound Ig which serves as receptor for Ag
-B cell encounters Ab and is stimulated to proliferate to plasma cells and secrete Ab of the same specificity as membrane boung Ig
What is the function of Ab?
recognize and bind to complementary Ag and target them for destruction by other components of the IR
The Fc portion is AKA?
constant portion
variable portion
Describe the major aspects of an Ab?
-2 polypeptide chains (2 L, 2 H)
-Y shaped (covalently linked by disulfide bond)
Describe what the experment with papain and pepsin told scientists?
Papain: broke Ab to 3 fragments
pepsin: produces 2 fragments (top unhooks from bottom)
What are hypervariable regions?
AA differences in variable domains of H & L chains
What is an epitope?
area of Ag that binds Ab
AKA antigenic determinant
If the surface of the pathogen is complex and contains several epitopes, what is it called? What about repeated...draw?
Describe the process of Monoclonal antibodies?
*capable of detecting and quantifying Ag* used clincally/research
1. B cells from mouse immunized with Ag
2. Mix with Myeloma cells
3. fuse cells
4. grow in drug containing medium, only hybrid cells live
5. select for antigen-specific hybridoma
6. cone-selected hybridoma cells
What is flow cytometry?
1. Mixture of cells labeled with fluorescent antibodies
2. stream of fluid drops through dector and gives read-out
What is unique about Ig diversity in the inheritance through the germ line?
-Ig genes are fragmented in all cell but B cells, cannot be expressed
-contains alternative versions of V region
-SOMATIC RECOMBINATION: rearrange to express
Explain the process of Ig genes becoming able to be expressed?
-rearranged to make functional gene
-only in developing B cells (during development of B cells from B cell precursors in the BM)
-when gene rearrangment is complete, H & L chains are produced and membrane bound Ig appears on the surface
-B celll now recognized and responds to Ag through this receptor
How is the V region of a light chain encoded?
combination of a V and one J segment
How is the C region encoded?
by single C gene
How is heavy chain of V region encoded?
one V to one D, then to one J (all of this=somatic recombination)
What is somatic recombination?
During B cell development, V, D, J (by VDJ recombinase) segments cut and spliced by DNA recombination
*Occurs in somatic cells
-a single gene segment of each type brought together to form a DNA sequence that codes for a V regions of a Ig chain
What is another aspect of somatic recombination that adds lots of diversity?
RAG1 and RAG2: recombination activating genes (made only in lymphocytes)
*Randomly cuts and adds nucleotides) adds 3X10^7 possibilites
What is the only isotype that can be produced by a naive B cell?
IgM and IgD
How are IgM and IgD produced simuletanesouly?
splicing of primary RNA transcript
What causes the transcription to proceed to make the H chain?
rearrangment of VD and J gene segments at H chain loci brings promotor and enhancer close together=transcription
Resultant: mRNA is spliced and translated to H chain protein
What is allelic exculsion?
Process of Ig genes rearrangement being controlled:
-only one H and on L chain expressed, even though get total of 2 from parents
-ensures B cells will produce and Ig single Ag specificity
What are the steps of Ig production/
-first made in membrane bound form
-present on B cell surface
-H chain associates w/cell membrane
-Ig enter ER as soon as synthesized: the H and L associate w/ea other in ER
-must be transported with Ig alpha and Ig beta to travel to surface the form B cell receptor
What is the Ig component of the B cell responsible for?
binding Ag
-long tail of Ig alpha and Ig B interact with intracellular proteins
-signal B cell to divide and differeentiate
What does encountering an Ag for a B cell do?
triggers proliferation and differenetiation (secreation of Ab)
What is a major difference between IgM and IgD?
IgM: produced in large amounts, important for protective immunity
IgD: produced in small amts, NO KNOW FUNC!
What are the two forms of Ig?
bound and secreted
What is the transmembrane portion of an Ig molecule known as?
carboxy terminus, C terminus
What is somatic hyeprmutation?
*After encounter with Ag, further diversification happens in the V (H/L) domain coding sequences
-Randomly inserts single nucleotide substitutents (point mutations) at high rate in the V region
=mutant Ig which is good may have higher affinity for Ag
What is isotype switching?
Recombination within the cluster of C genes
**Ag specificity remains UNCHANGED**
What does neutralizing Ab do?
-directly inactivates pathogens/toxins
-prevent interaction with cells
What does Opsonization do?
-coating of pathogens with a protein =more efficiently ingested by phagocytes
Describe characteristics of the IgM.
First Ab produced!
-Made by plasma cells in LN, SPL, BM, circulates in PB and lympth
-multiple binding sites
-when bound, exposed site of the constant region can interact with complement
followded by: IgG production
What are some characteristics of IgG?
MOST Abundant Ab!
-smaller and more flexible than IgM
**can recruit phagocytic cells and activate complement
Characteristics of IgA?
*Monomeric (Made by plasma cells)
**Dimeric: made in lymphoid tissue underlying musosal surfaces
-secreted into the lumen of the gut
-also found in milk, saliva, sweat/tears
Characteristics of IgE?
-highly specialized for activation of mast cells
-present in epithelial cells
-triggers inflammatory rxn when bound to mast cells
-involved in expulsion of womrs and other parasites
-major impact on allergies