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23 Cards in this Set

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Does innate immunity have memory?
NO
What is the response time for innate immunity?
minutes to hours
What are some major cell types of innate immunity?
phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils), NK cells, and dendritic cells
When does inflammation become a problem?
when the immune system doesn't shut off
Describe acute inflammation.
response to tissue damage (cut or burn)

combats early stages of infection and leads to repair of damaged tissues
Describe chronic inflammation.
response to damage leading to arthritis

continued damage to tissues

requires pharmacotherapy
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Swelling (tumor)
Redness (rubor)
Pain (dolor)
Heat (calor)
Describe the steps in inflammation.
1. Tissue damage causes the release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors that trigger a local increase in blood flow and capillary permeability

2. Permeable capillaries allow an influx of fluid and cells

3. Phagocytes migrate to the site of inflammation

4. Phagocytes and antibacterial exudate destroy bacteria
What is necessary for the movement of leukocytes to the site of infection?
leukocyte extravasation
What are the 4 steps involved in leukocyte extravasation?
1. Rolling
2. Activation
3. Arrest/adhesion
4. Transendothelial migration
What causes adhesion in leukocyte extravasation and why is adhesion important?
ICAMs and Integrins

adhesion is important because it keeps the neutrophil in the infection area
What are some soluble factors in the innate immune system? (3)

Where are they produced?
1. Defensins - small peptides, kill a wide variety of bacteria rapidly, associated with neutrophils (also secreted by paneth cells produced in the kidney and pancreas)

2. Cathelicidins

3. Interferons

Produced at the site of infection and act locally
What are the 3 mediator families?
1. Chemokine mediators
2. Lipid Inflammatory mediators
3. Plasma Enzyme mediators
- kinins
- clotting factors
- fibrinolytic system
- complement
Describe the chemokines.
cytokines that activate or attract leukocytes

usually 65-120 amino acids

released by a wide variety of cells in response to viral or bacterial infection

some play a role in angiogenesis
When does the acute phase response occur?
when there is tissue damage
C-reactive protein is a _______?
pentraxin - binds ligand calcium dependent
Innate immunity uses a wide variety of receptors to detect infection. What are they? (3) Which is the most important?
1. Toll receptors (most important)

2. LBP proteins - recognize polysaccharide on bacterial cell wall

3. NOD proteins - most recently found; respond to bacterial peptidoglycans
How many toll-like receptors are there in humans?
11

the function is known for 9 of them
Toll-like receptors that recognize extracellular ligands are found where? intracellular ligands?
extracellular ligands found on cell surfaces

intracellular ligands found intracellulary
What do neutrophils specialize in?
Phagocytosis and killing
What do neutrophils display that make them well weaponized?
TLR-2, TLR-4, ROS (reactive oxygen species), RNS (reactive nitrogen species)
ROS and RNS are generated by what?
phox (NADPH phagosome oxidase)
A defect in phox can cause what?
chronic granulomatous disease - increases susceptibility to fungal and bacterial infections