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38 Cards in this Set

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innate immunity
immune system that is more evolutionarily older and provides continuous protection of body surfaces
adaptive immunity
specifically stimulated by an antigen, resulting in clonal selection of antigen-relevant lymphocytes. a more potent immune response to support nonspecific innate immunity; also generates immunological memory
inflammation
localized protective response to a stimulus that contains and removes the injurious agent; signs are heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function...may be acute or chronic
mucosa
pertaining to surfaces of the body lined by a mucosa and in direct contact with the external environment; specifically the conjunctiva, respiratory tract, alimentary tract, urogenital tract, and mammary glands.
lysozyme
enzyme found in secretions that disrupts the cell wall of bacteria
complement system
series of plasma proteins which, when activated, interact sequentially, forming a self-assembling enzymatic cascade and generating biologically active molecules that mediate a range of end processes
primary immune response
immune response made by an individual on first encounter with a foreign antigen
alarmin
molecule released by damaged tissue cells that triggers innate immunity and inflammation
apoptosis
cell death resulting from activation of an internal death program within the cell, leading to DNA degradation, nuclear degeneration and condensation, and phagocytosis of the cell remains
antigen
substance that initiates a specific immune response; a molecule that can bind to a specific antibody, although some antigens don't elicit antibodies as part of the immune response
secondary immune response
immune response made by an individual on secondary re-encounter with an antigen; more rapid, more powerful, and longer lasting
peristalsis
directional motility of the GI tract responsible for the transit of ingesta through the system
defensin
antimicrobial peptide secreted from epithelial surfaces
dendritic cell
major APC for a primary immune response; undertakes antigen capture, processing and presentation to T cells, and looks like cytoplasmic dendrites.
regulation
of an immune response; may be either positive or negative responses
vaccination
induction of an adaptive immune response with immunological memory by deliberate exposure to an antigen; typically the antigen is an attenuated or killed pathogen and the process of vaccination induces an immune response that can protect the individual from field exposure to virulent pathogens.
surfactant protein
antimicrobial peptide
mast cell
a sentinel cell
sentinel cell
carries PRRs on its cell membrane and is positioned at sites of entry of infectious agents (epithelial surfaces, blood, etc.); upon detection of infectious agents, they release signaling molecules to recruit and activate innate immune mechanisms
monocyte
becomes a macrophage upon entering tissue cells; a sentinel cell; during inflammation, monocytes exit the bloodstream in large numbers
lymph
transports antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated
lymphoid tissue
concerned with immune functions in defending the body against the infections and spread of tumors. It consists of connective tissue with various types of white blood cells enmeshed in it, most numerous being the lymphocytes
mucosal lymphoid tissue
diffusion system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various sites of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin
synonyms of innate immunity
nonspecific, natural
synonyms of adaptive immunity
specific, acquired
innate immunity
low specificity, PAMPs, DAMPs, PRRs, no memory, immediate to rapid timing, exclusion mechanisms (epithelium, antimicrobial substances, normal microbial flora), etc.
adaptive immunity
high specificity, antigens, antigen receptors, memory produced, late primary response, more rapid secondary response, antibodies at epithelial surfaces, etc.
epithelial barrier
physical barrier to infection, covered by fluids and/or mucus, fatty acid secretions, and is cleaned by desquamation, peristalsis, mucociliary apparatus, and tears/lashes of the eye
mucociliary escalator
The mucociliary escalator covers most of the bronchi, bronchioles and nose. It is composed of two basic parts;
1. the mucus-producing goblet cells
2. the ciliated epithelium.

The cilia are continually beating, pushing mucus up and out into the throat. The mucociliary escalator is a major barrier against infection. Microorganisms hoping to infect the respiratory tract are caught in the sticky mucus and moved up by the mucociliary escalator.
phospholipase A
enzyme present in fluid layer that kills or limits replication of infectious agents on the epithelial surfaces
neutrophil
During the beginning (acute) phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, environmental exposure,[4] and some cancers,[5][6] neutrophils are one of the first-responders of inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation. They migrate through the blood vessels, then through interstitial tissue in a process called chemotaxis.
natural killer cell
lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity and the only lymphocyte that is a part of innate immunity; roduce large quantities of interferon-gamma, IL-4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, as well as multiple other cytokines and chemokines
lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immune cells. Lymph nodes are found all through the body, and act as filters or traps for foreign particles. They are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells called lymphocytes and macrophages.
effector response
humoral (mediated by antibodies) or cell-mediated (mediated by T lymphocytes); part of the adaptive immune response
alveolar macrophages
macrophages situated in air sacs of alveoli to capture and kill organisms that get past the mucociliary apparatus; outside body!
T lymphocytes
cell-mediated, perform a variety of functions; thymus derived. part of adaptive immunity; have a TCR (T cell receptor); recognize antigens presented from another cell
B lymphocytes
produce antibodies of immunoglobulins; humoral immunity; bursa derived; make antibodies against antigens, perform the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction
spleen
It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock while also recycling iron; also contain in its reserve half of the body's monocytes within the red pulp.[5] These monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart), turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing.[5][6][7] It is one of the centers of activity of the reticuloendothelial system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence leads to a predisposition toward certain infections.