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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The four classes of pathogens
bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites
A bacterium that causes a common disease in a population that has been previously exposed to it is called:
endemic
3 epithelial barriers in the human body
skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, & urogenital tract
defensin
an antimicrobial peptide that protects epithelial surfaces from pathogens
Characteristics and causes of inflammation
heat, redness, swelling, pain are caused by vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and infiltration of fluid and leukocytes
Where do all leukocytes originate?
bone marrow
monocytes
circulating leukocytes that enter tissue and differentiate into macrophages
complement fixation
cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b by C3 convertase. This can have different composition depending on the complement pathway
C3b
binds to pathogen during complement pathway and takes part in the membrane attack
C3a
serves as a chemoattractant that recruits inflammatory cells to the area
alternative pathway
this complement pathway does not require a specific antibody to commence
initiated by spontaneous hydrolysis of C3
opsinization
molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis
classical pathway
group of proteins that bind to a specific antibody during complement activation
lectin pathway
this pathway does not require an antibody and is initiated by binding of a mannose lectin to a pathogen that possesses mannose
macrophage vs. nuetrophils
neutrophils only enter tissue after an infection has been established, macrophages are always in the tissue and can serve as APCs
3 advantages to adaptive immunity
long lasting
keeps improving
have specific targets
clonal selection
the process by which a pathogen stimulates only those lymphocytes with receptors specific for that pathogen
somatic recombination
recombination of gene segments of the T cell receptors and immunoglobulin genes giving rise to lymphocytes with unique specificities for antigens
CD4 vs. CD8 T cells
CD4 T cells - recognize antigen derived from extracellular fluid and interstitial spaces between cells
CD8 T cells - recognize antigens derived from intracellular sites such as viruses and some bacteria
plasma cells
activated B cells that produce antibodies
Where is the MHC found?
dendritic cells
MHC class I vs. MHC class II
Class I - presents antigens from intracellular pathogens
Class II - presents antigens from extracellular pathogens
immunoglobulins
B cell receptors that consist of a variable region and a constant region
antibodies
soluble immunoglobulins secreted by B cells (plasma cells) and bind with T cell receptors
consist of a variable region and a constant region
isotypes
types of immunoglobulins
How do different isotypes differ?
Different amounts of carbohydrates and have different lengths of heavy chains
epitope
part of an antigen that binds to an antibody
multivalent antigen
an antigen that has multiple epitopes or more than one copy of an epitope
linear epitopes
where the antibody binds to parts of a molecule (or antigen) that are adjacent in in the linear sequence
discontinuous epitopes
where an antibody binds to parts of a protein that are separated in the amino acid sequence but brought together when the protein folds
α2-macroglobulins
protease inhibitors that attract pathogen proteases and fold around them when cleaved
Where are defensins common?
phagocytes and small intestinal mucosa
Immune system
cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate responses to infections
Immunology
study of the structure and function of the immune system
Immune system
cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate responses to infections
Immune system
cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate responses to infections
Immune system
cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate responses to infections
Immune system
cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate responses to infections
immunity
resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic effects
Immunology
study of the structure and function of the immune system
Immunology
study of the structure and function of the immune system
Immunology
study of the structure and function of the immune system
immune response
collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substances in an individual by the cells and molecules of the immune system
immunity
resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic effects
Immunology
study of the structure and function of the immune system
immunity
resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic effects
immunity
resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic effects
immune response
collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substances in an individual by the cells and molecules of the immune system
immunity
resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic effects
Four classes of pathogens
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Apoptosis versus Necrosis
Apoptosis - preprogrammed cell death that does not induce inflammation
Necrosis - unplanned cell death that initiates inflammation
immune response
collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substances in an individual by the cells and molecules of the immune system
immune response
collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substances in an individual by the cells and molecules of the immune system
immune response
collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substances in an individual by the cells and molecules of the immune system
Four classes of pathogens
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Four classes of pathogens
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Four classes of pathogens
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Four classes of pathogens
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Apoptosis versus Necrosis
Apoptosis - preprogrammed cell death that does not induce inflammation
Necrosis - unplanned cell death that initiates inflammation
Apoptosis versus Necrosis
Apoptosis - preprogrammed cell death that does not induce inflammation
Necrosis - unplanned cell death that initiates inflammation
Apoptosis versus Necrosis
Apoptosis - preprogrammed cell death that does not induce inflammation
Necrosis - unplanned cell death that initiates inflammation
Apoptosis versus Necrosis
Apoptosis - preprogrammed cell death that does not induce inflammation
Necrosis - unplanned cell death that initiates inflammation