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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Molds
multinucleate
grow as hyphae
yeasts
unicellular ovoid cells- divide through budding
protozoa
singe celled animals
injection by bites- Trypanosomes, Leishmania, plasmodium
ingestion of infective staged- Gardia, Entamoeba
Helminths
-tapeworm (Cestoda)
-flukes (Trematoda)
-roundworms (Nematoda)
hi(N:C) cells
all B cells
90% T helper cells
50% Tc cells
Gaul body
lipid drop with primary lysosomes- found in T cells wtih hi(N:C)
lo(N:C)
LGL morphology
10% Th cells
50% Tc cells
all NK cells
more lysosomes in T cells
CD
cluster designation
clusters of antibodies that recognize a particular cell marker
TCR-2
alpha and beta polypeptides
always assoc. with CD3
positive transmembrane
TCR-1
gamma and delta
always assoc. with CD3
CD3
five polypeptides always associaed with 2 TCR
negative transmembrane
lo(N:C)
LGL morphology
10% Th cells
50% Tc cells
all NK cells
more lysosomes in T cells
CD
cluster designation
clusters of antibodies that recognize a particular cell marker
TCR-2
alpha and beta polypeptides
always assoc. with CD3
positive transmembrane
TCR-1
gamma and delta
always assoc. with CD3
CD3
five polypeptides always associated with 2 TCR
negative transmembrane
B cells in peripheral blood express IgM and IgD
IgM is associated with other molecules on B cells surgace to form the B cell antigen receptor complex
main markers to identify human B cells
CD19, CD20, CD22
NKRP1
on NK cell
attaches to glycoproteins and sends + signal to kill cell- counteracted by Ly49
Ly49
on NK cell
attaches to MHC1 and sends - signal so cell is not killed
activated B cell expressed new markers-
MHC2, IL-2 receptors, IL-3-6 receptors
Mononuclear phagocytes are two types-
1- professional phagocytic
2- APC- have Fc receptors and MHC2
monocyte characteristics
horse shoe shaped nucleus with azurphilic granules
large
contain peroxidase and acid hydrolases for intracellular killing
follicular dendritic cell
in B cell areas of lymph and spleen
present antigen to B cells, lack MHC2 but have lots of comp. rec. and Fc rec.
interdigitating cells in medulla of thymus
delete self recognizing T cells
neutrophil
90% of granulocytes
three lobes
primary granules- lysosomes
secondary granules- lysozyme
Kamakazi cells
comp. rec, not specific
eosiniphil
bi-lobed
allergies- usually degranulate
parasitic worms
basophil
allergen stimulates degran.
allergen must cross like with IgE
histamine
Fc rec. for IgE
platelets
increase permeability of BV around injury
Hassal's corpuscles
in thymic medulla, contain degenerating epithelial cells
white pulp of spleen
surrounds central arteriole- PALS
T cells around arteriole
B cells further out in 1ary and 2ary follicles
germinal centers
in secondary follicles of B cells in spleen and lymph nodes
contain follicular dendritic cells and phagocytic cells
marginal zone
surrounding secondary follicles of B cells of lymph nodes and spleen
contain B cells and macrophages
red pulp of spleen
sinuses containing macrophages, erythrocytes, platelets, granulocytes, and plasma cells
where old RBCs are destroyed
Lymph node
Cortex- B cells
Paracortex- T cells
Medulla- T cells, B cells, plasma cells and macrophages
HEV in lymph nodes
mostly in paracortex but some in cortex
classes of Ig determined by..
heavy chain type
isotypes
differences in CONSTANT region
allotypes
differences in protein expression in one individual in a population
same isotype
idiotypes
differences in VARIABLE region
produces antigen specificity
A B cell can have more than one _____ but only one _______.
isotype, idiotype

specific to ONE antigen
IgG
all memory cells
four chain molecule
confers immunity to newborn
IgM
pentamer connected by J chain and 18AA residue
first antibody released in immune response
IgD
large amount on B cell membrane
unknown function
IgE
scarce in serum
basophils and mast cells
allergies
short lived abs, but long lived when attached to mast cell
CDR- complement determining region
variable region on light chain of Abs
interspered by Fr- framework
gene segments for variable chain
variabe, joining, diversity
papain
cleaves into two Fab segments and one Fc region
cleaves in hinge region
pepsin
cleaves after hinge-
one Fab2 and one pFc
CDR's -numbers
30, 50, 95

in abs, 3 CDR's and 4 Fr's
ITAM
portion of CD3 with tyrosine that is phosphoryated upon peptide bonding of TCR
causes IL2 and IL2 rec. to be expressed
MHC gene location
Chr. 6 humans HLA complex
Chr. 17 mice H2 complex
Class III MHC genes
encode soluble serum proteins, components of complement, TNF
haplotype
set of alleles for MHC- one from mom and one from dad
MHC 1
always with B2 microglobulin
binds short aa sequences
blocked cleft- anchor residue
low expression in liver, neural and muscle cells
high expression in lymphs
MHC 2
Beta and Alpha chains- 2
up to 12 on cell
H bonding throughout binding site
ABC family of transporters
In cell with MHC1, transport peptide to RER from cytoplasm
antibody affinity
strength of single bond between antigen and antibody
antibody avidity
all the Fab regions so more than one epitope and paratope interaction
first interaction after antigen challenge
APC and T cell
Interdigitating dendritic cells
in T cell dependent areas of lymph nodes and spleen
the most effective cells for inital activation of resting CD4 T cells
have CD80 and CD82 to stim. CD28 on T cell
highest levels of MHC2
enzyme p56lck
on TCR- phosphorylates tyr. on ITAM of CD3
co stimulatory interactions
"second signal"
ICAM-1 with LFA-1
CD80/CD82 with CD28- most potent signal to divide
LFA-3 with CD2 activates T cells
IL-1 and IL-6 by APCs
activate T cell- induce expression for IL-2 rec. on T cell
macrophage activating factors from T cells
IFN gamma, GM-CSF, TNF alpha
induce expression of MHC2, Fc rec., adhesion molecules (CD80, CD82), IL6, IL1
TNF alpha from macrophage
can kill cell directly
causes leukocytes to adhere to bv wall and diapediesis
TNF alpha and IL-2
stimulate NK cells
CD40 on B cell binds to CD40L of T cell...
most potent activator of B cell
T cell release cytokines- affect on B cell
IL-2- proliferation
IL-4- early on B cell activation and proliferation
IL-5- in mouse, activator
IL-6- DIFFERNTIATION
TNF alpha and beta- B cell growth
primary antigenic challenge
lag, log, plateau, decline
mostly IgM
secondary antigenic challenge
shorter lag
extended plateau and decline
much higher plateau
mostly IgG
memory Th cells
IL-4
induces IgG switch to IgE
sedondary challenge higher affinity due to...
somatic hypermutation
selective expansion of high affinity clones only
How do memory B cells differe from unprimed B cells?
They make IgG earlier and have higher affinity for antigen
T ind antigens
Activate B cells without T cell help
similar weak primary and secondary response
many are products of bacteria
mitogens (lectins)
can activate lymphocytes in a non-antigen speciic manner
bind to CD2 on T cell
ex. PHA ConA
superantigens
activate T cells non-specifically- bind on variable B chain of TCR. Puts T cell in state of tolerance.
cytokines
regulate cell growth, cell activation, inflamm, immunity, tissue repair, morphogenesis.
chemokines if chemotactic
inteferons
anti-viral CKs.
IFN alpha and beta- response to viruses
IFN gamma- response to immune stimuli, produced by NK and T cells.
-induce MHC2 molecules, and IL-1 and IL-6
Inerleukins
made by endothelial cells and fibroblasts
IL-1
made mostly by macrophages
stimulates T and B cells
fever
almost all cells have it
IL-2
made by T cells and NKs
most powerful growth factor and activator
acts on B cells and NK's to induce growth and differentiation
IL-3
stimulates stem cell growth, always with growth factor
IL-4
acts on B cells to induce activation and differentiation
causes TH cell differentiation
IL-6
produced by macrophages, T cells, B cells, fibroblasts, endothellial cells
acts on B cells to differentiation into AFCs
humoral branch
EXTRAcellular
cell mediated branch
INTRAcellular
depend on cytokines
bacterial endotoxin
activates complement components
TH select and activate effector mechanisms
help B cells make antibody
activate or suppress effector cells- Tc, NK, macrophages, granulocytes, K cells
if organism triggers release of IL-12 and IFN gamma from macrophage, then....
TH1 subset will develop and secrete IL-2 and IFN gamma which activate macrophages
if organism triggers release of IL-4 and IL-10 from macrophage then...
TH2 subset will develop and secrete IL-4-6, IL-10 to increase Abs production, increase mast cells and eosinophils
IFN gamma from TH1 cells inhibits...
proliferation of TH2 cells
IL-10 of TH2 cells inhibits...
cytokine release by TH1 cells
effector cells of cell mediated cytotoxicity are...
Tc cells
NK cells
K cells
most important role of Tc cell is to...
eliminate virus infected cells
NK cells provide....
the first line of defense against virus infection
NK cells peak at 3 days
Tc cells peak at 7 days
Virus infected cells release IFN alpha and beta which activate...
NK cells
K cell
any cytotoxic cell with Fc receptor on surface- must link to pathogen through abs made by B cell
killing mech of T cells, K cells, NK cells
bind target cell
degranulate releasing perforin
polyperforin channels on target cell
degredative enzymes enter
ADCC
Antibody Dependent Cell Mediated Cytotoxity
endotoxin (myeloid derived) killing mechanism
LPS activate macrophage to release TNF alpha- this with IFN gamma from T cells and NK cells produces NO and kills
myeloid cells killing mech.
release reactive oxygen intermediates, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hydrolytic enzymes
cytotoxicity
virus infected essential cells are killed
ie. nerve cells
chronic inflammation
against autoantigens resulting in inflamm.
ie. Rheumatoid, multiple sclerosis
Space occupying lesions
T cells continue to accumulate and release lymphokines, recruiting macrophages--granuloma results--giant cell with lytic enzymes.
CD4 Th1 producing IL-2, IFNgamma and TNF alpha
Excessive cytokine release
toxic shock syndrome